Protocol of 1992 to amend the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969 (CLC PROT 1992)

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: London, United Kingdom
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 30/05/1996

Category

Environment and products

Sub category

Maritime and Law of the Sea

Groups

IMO

What is it about?

The 1992 CLC Protocol changed the entry into force requirements by reducing from six to four the number of large tanker-owning countries that are needed. It also widened the scope of the Convention to cover pollution damage caused in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) or equivalent area of a Contracting State. The Protocol covers pollution damage as before but environmental damage compensation is limited to costs incurred for reasonable measures to reinstate the contaminated environment. It also allows expenses incurred for preventive measures to be recovered even when no spill of oil occurs, provided there was grave and imminent threat of pollution damage. The Protocol also extended the Convention to cover spills from sea-going vessels constructed or adapted to carry oil in bulk as cargo so that it applies to both laden and unladen tankers, including spills of bunker oil from such ships. Under the 1992 Protocol, a shipowner cannot limit liability if it is proved that the pollution damage resulted from the shipowner's personal act or omission, committed with the intent to cause such damage, or recklessly and with knowledge that such damage would probably result.

Why is it relevant?

The 1992 Protocol allows for States Party to the 1992 Protocol to issue certificates to ships registered in States which are not Party to the 1992 Protocol, so that a shipowner can obtain certificates to both the 1969 and 1992 CLC, even when the ship is registered in a country which has not yet ratified the 1992 Protocol. This is important because a ship which has only a 1969 CLC may find it difficult to trade to a country which has ratified the 1992 Protocol, as it establishes higher limits of liability. From 16 May 1998, Parties to the 1992 Protocol ceased to be Parties to the 1969 CLC due to a mechanism for compulsory denunciation of the "old" regime established in the 1992 Protocol. However, for the time being, the two regimes co-exist, since there are a number of States, which are party to the 1969 CLC and have not yet ratified the 1992 regime - which is intended to eventually replace the 1969 CLC.

Additional Information

N/A

  • The International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969
  • Protocol to the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969 (CLCPROT 1976)
  • International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND) (London, 18 December 1971)
  • Protocol to Amend the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND 2) (London, 27 November 1992)

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Country ratifications
CountryRatification date
Albania30/06/2005
Algeria11/06/1998
Angola04/10/2001
Antigua and Barbuda14/06/2000
Argentina13/10/2000
Australia09/10/1995
Azerbaijan16/07/2004
Bahamas01/04/1997
Bahrain03/05/1996
Barbados07/07/1998
Belgium06/10/1998
Belize27/11/1998
Benin05/02/2010
Brunei Darussalam03/01/2002
Bulgaria28/11/2003
Cambodia08/06/2001
Cameroon15/10/2001
Canada29/05/1998
Cape Verde04/07/2003
Chile29/05/2002
China05/01/1999
Colombia19/11/2001
Comoros15/01/2000
Congo07/08/2002
Cote d'Ivoire08/07/2013
Croatia12/01/1998
Cyprus12/05/1997
Denmark30/05/1995
Djibouti08/01/2001
Dominica31/08/2001
Dominican Republic24/06/1999
Ecuador11/12/2007
Egypt21/04/1995
El Salvador02/01/2002
Estonia06/08/2004
Fiji30/11/1999
Finland24/11/1995
France29/09/1994
Gabon31/05/2002
Georgia18/04/2000
Germany29/09/1994
Ghana03/02/2003
Greece09/10/1995
Grenada07/01/1998
Guinea02/10/2002
Hungary30/03/2007
Iceland13/11/1998
India15/11/1999
Indonesia06/07/1999
Iran24/10/2007
Ireland15/05/1997
Israel21/10/2004
Italy16/09/1999
Jamaica06/06/1997
Japan24/08/1994
Jordan27/05/2015
Kenya02/02/2000
Kiribati05/02/2007
Kuwait16/04/2004
Latvia09/03/1998
Lebanon30/03/2005
Liberia05/10/1995
Lithuania27/06/2000
Luxembourg21/11/2005
Madagascar21/05/2002
Malaysia09/06/2004
Maldives20/05/2005
Malta06/01/2000
Marshall Islands16/10/1995
Mauritania04/05/2012
Mauritius06/12/1999
Mexico13/05/1994
Moldova11/10/2005
Monaco08/11/1996
Mongolia08/08/2008
Montenegro29/11/2011
Morocco22/08/2000
Mozambique26/04/2002
Namibia18/12/2002
Netherlands15/11/1996
New Zealand25/06/1998
Nicaragua04/04/2014
Nigeria24/05/2002
Norway03/04/1995
Oman08/07/1994
Pakistan02/03/2005
Palau29/09/2011
Panama18/03/1999
Papua New Guinea23/01/2001
Peru01/09/2005
Philippines07/07/1997
Poland21/12/1999
Portugal13/11/2001
Qatar20/11/2001
Republic of Korea07/03/1997
Romania27/11/2000
Russian Federation20/03/2000
Saint Kitts and Nevis07/10/2004
Saint Lucia20/05/2004
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines09/10/2001
Samoa01/02/2002
Saudi Arabia23/05/2005
Senegal02/08/2011
Serbia25/05/2011
Seychelles23/07/1999
Sierra Leone04/06/2001
Singapore18/09/1997
Slovakia08/07/2013
Slovenia19/07/2000
Solomon Islands30/06/2004
South Africa01/10/2004
Spain06/07/1995
Sri Lanka22/01/1999
Sweden25/05/1995
Switzerland04/07/1996
Syrian Arab Republic22/02/2005
Togo23/04/2012
Tonga10/12/1999
Trinidad and Tobago06/03/2000
Tunisia29/01/1997
Turkey17/08/2001
Turkmenistan21/09/2009
Tuvalu30/06/2004
Ukraine29/11/2007
United Arab Emirates19/11/1997
United Kingdom29/09/1994
United Republic of Tanzania19/11/2002
Uruguay09/07/1997
Vanuatu18/02/1999
Venezuela22/07/1998
Viet Nam17/06/2003
Yemen20/09/2006
Treaties analysis
YearRatifications
19946
199511
19964
199710
199811
199915
200012
200112
200212
20034
200410
20059
20061
20075
20081
20091
20101
20114
20122
20132
20141
20151
Total135
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