United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: Vienna, Austria
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 01/01/1988

Category

Contracts

Sub category

Sale of Goods

Groups

OPENESS TO MTRSUNCITRAL

What is it about?

This Convention establishes a comprehensive code of legal rules governing the formation of contracts for the international sale of goods. The Convention is divided into four parts. Part One deals with the scope of application of the Convention and the general provisions. Part Two contains the rules governing the formation of contracts for the international sale of goods. Part Three deals with the substantive rights and obligations of buyer and seller arising from the contract. Part Four contains the final clauses of the Convention concerning such matters as how and when it comes into force, the reservations and declarations that are permitted and the application of the Convention to international sales where both States concerned have the same or similar law on the subject.

Why is it relevant?

The present Convention provides uniform rules that govern contracts for the international sale of goods by taking into account the different social, economic and legal systems. It contributes to the removal of legal barriers in international trade and promotes the development of international trade.

Additional Information

Preparation of a uniform law for the international sale of goods began in 1930 at the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT) in Rome. After a long interruption in the work as a result of the Second World War, the draft was submitted to a diplomatic conference in The Hague in 1964, which adopted two conventions, one on the international sale of goods and the other on the formation of contracts for the international sale of goods. Almost immediately upon the adoption of the two conventions there was widespread criticism of their provisions as reflecting primarily the legal traditions and economic realities of continental Western Europe, which was the region that had most actively contributed to their preparation. As a result, one of the first tasks undertaken by UNCITRAL on its organization in 1968 was to enquire of States whether or not they intended to adhere to those conventions and the reasons for their positions. In the light of the responses received, UNCITRAL decided to study the two conventions to ascertain which modifications might render them capable of wider acceptance by countries of different legal, social and economic systems. The result of this study was the adoption by diplomatic conference on 11 April 1980 of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, which combines the subject matter of the two prior conventions.

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Country ratifications
CountryRatification date
Albania13/05/2009
Argentina19/07/1983
Armenia02/12/2008
Australia17/03/1988
Austria29/12/1987
Azerbaijan03/05/2016
Bahrain25/09/2013
Belarus09/10/1989
Belgium31/10/1996
Benin29/07/2011
Bosnia and Herzegovina12/01/1994
Brazil04/03/2013
Bulgaria09/07/1990
Burundi04/09/1998
Canada23/04/1991
Chile07/02/1990
China11/12/1986
Colombia10/07/2001
Congo11/06/2014
Croatia08/06/1998
Cuba02/11/1994
Cyprus07/03/2005
Czech Republic30/09/1993
Denmark14/02/1989
Dominican Republic07/06/2010
Ecuador27/01/1992
Egypt06/12/1982
El Salvador27/11/2006
Estonia20/09/1993
Finland15/12/1987
France06/08/1982
Gabon15/12/2004
Georgia16/08/1994
Germany21/12/1989
Greece12/01/1998
Guinea23/01/1991
Guyana25/09/2014
Honduras10/10/2002
Hungary16/06/1983
Iceland10/05/2001
Iraq05/03/1990
Israel22/01/2002
Italy11/12/1986
Japan01/07/2008
Kyrgyzstan11/05/1999
Latvia31/07/1997
Lebanon21/11/2008
Lesotho18/06/1981
Liberia16/09/2005
Lithuania18/01/1995
Luxembourg30/01/1997
Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of)22/11/2006
Madagascar24/09/2014
Mauritania20/09/1999
Mexico29/12/1987
Moldova13/10/1994
Mongolia31/12/1997
Montenegro23/10/2006
Netherlands13/12/1990
New Zealand22/09/1994
Norway20/07/1988
Paraguay13/01/2006
Peru25/03/1999
Poland19/05/1995
Republic of Korea17/02/2004
Romania22/05/1991
Russian Federation16/08/1990
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines12/09/2000
San Marino22/02/2012
Serbia12/03/2001
Singapore16/02/1995
Slovakia28/05/1993
Slovenia07/01/1994
Spain24/07/1990
Sweden15/12/1987
Switzerland21/02/1990
Syrian Arab Republic19/10/1982
Turkey07/07/2010
Uganda12/02/1992
Ukraine03/01/1990
United States of America11/12/1986
Uruguay25/01/1999
Uzbekistan27/11/1996
Viet Nam18/12/2015
Zambia06/06/1986
Treaties analysis
YearRatifications
19811
19823
19832
19866
19874
19882
19894
19908
19913
19922
19933
19946
19953
19962
19973
19983
19994
20001
20013
20022
20042
20052
20064
20083
20091
20102
20111
20121
20132
20143
20151
20161
Total88
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