International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78)

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: London, United Kingdom
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 02/10/1983

Category

Environment and products

Sub category

Maritime and Law of the Sea

Groups

IMO

What is it about?

This instrument contains regulations covering prevention and minimization of pollution from ships derived from both routine operations and accidents. This instrument, also known as MARPOL 73/78, is made up of the combination of two treaties: The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships – MARPOL (London, 02/11/1973), which did not enter into force and it is not intended to do so anymore, and this protocol itself, which absorbed the latter convention. States ratifying this instrument must accept Annexes I and II, but can choose not to ratify the others. It currently includes six technical annexes, the first two of which deal specifically with: - Annex I: Prevention of pollution by oil. It establishes detailed oil discharge criteria and it introduces and defines the concept of ‘special areas’, which are considered to be so vulnerable to pollution by oil that oil discharges within them have been completely prohibited. (Entry into force: 02/10/1983) - Annex II: Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk, detailing the discharge criteria and control measures. (Entry into force: 06/04/1987).

Why is it relevant?

It is the main international instrument aiming at preventing pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes.

Additional Information

There are several amendments to the technical annexes of this instrument. They can be adopted by a ‘tacit acceptance’ procedure, whereby the amendments enter into force on a specific date unless an agreed number of States Parties object it. Violations to this instrument within the jurisdiction of any party are punishable either under the law of the party or under the law of the flag State. The Contracting parties accept the obligation to promote support to those parties which request technical assistance for various purposes, such as training, the supply of equipment, research, and combating pollution. In December 2007 146 states had ratified the Protocol, the combined merchant fleets of which constitute 99% of the gross tonnage of the world’s merchant fleet. F. Related Instruments: - Protocol of 1978 relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as amended (MARPOL PROT 1978): Annexes III, IV, V- Protocol of 1997 to amend the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 Relating Thereto (MARPOL PROT 1997): Annex VI

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Country ratifications
CountryRatification date
Afghanistan20/05/2005
Albania09/01/2007
Algeria31/01/1989
Angola04/10/2001
Antigua and Barbuda29/01/1988
Argentina31/08/1993
Australia14/10/1987
Austria27/05/1988
Azerbaijan-
Bahamas07/06/1983
Bahrain27/04/2007
Bangladesh18/12/2002
Barbados06/05/1994
Belarus07/01/1994
Belgium06/03/1984
Belize26/05/1995
Benin11/02/2000
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)04/06/1999
Brazil29/01/1988
Brunei Darussalam23/10/1986
Bulgaria12/12/1984
Cambodia28/11/1994
Cameroon18/09/2009
Canada16/11/1992
Cape Verde-
Chile10/10/1994
China01/07/1983
Colombia27/07/1981
Comoros22/11/2000
Congo-
Cote d'Ivoire05/10/1987
Croatia08/10/1991
Cuba21/12/1992
Cyprus22/06/1989
Czech Republic01/01/1993
Democratic People's Republic of Korea01/05/1985
Denmark27/11/1980
Djibouti01/03/1990
Dominica21/06/2000
Dominican Republic24/06/1999
Ecuador18/05/1990
Egypt07/08/1986
El Salvador24/09/2008
Equatorial Guinea24/04/1996
Estonia16/12/1991
Fiji08/03/2016
Finland20/09/1983
France25/09/1981
Gabon26/04/1983
Gambia01/11/1991
Georgia08/11/1994
Germany21/01/1982
Ghana03/06/1991
Greece23/09/1982
Guatemala03/11/1997
Guinea02/10/2002
Guyana10/12/1997
Honduras21/08/2001
Hungary14/01/1985
Iceland25/06/1985
India24/09/1986
Indonesia21/10/1986
Iran25/10/2002
Ireland06/01/1995
Israel31/08/1983
Italy01/10/1982
Jamaica13/03/1991
Japan09/06/1983
Jordan02/06/2006
Kazakhstan07/03/1994
Kenya15/12/1992
Kiribati05/02/2007
Kuwait07/08/2007
Latvia20/05/1992
Lebanon18/07/1983
Liberia28/10/1980
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya-
Lithuania04/12/1991
Luxembourg14/02/1991
Madagascar-
Malawi17/12/2001
Malaysia31/01/1997
Maldives-
Malta21/06/1991
Marshall Islands26/04/1988
Mauritania24/11/1997
Mauritius06/04/1995
Mexico23/04/1992
Moldova11/10/2005
Monaco20/08/1992
Mongolia15/10/2003
Montenegro03/06/2006
Morocco12/10/1993
Mozambique-
Myanmar04/05/1988
Namibia18/12/2002
Netherlands30/06/1983
New Zealand25/09/1998
Nicaragua01/02/2001
Nigeria24/05/2002
Norway15/07/1980
Oman13/03/1984
Pakistan22/11/1994
Palau29/09/2011
Panama20/02/1985
Papua New Guinea25/10/1993
Peru25/04/1980
Philippines16/06/2001
Poland01/04/1986
Portugal22/10/1987
Qatar-
Republic of Korea23/07/1984
Romania15/04/1993
Russian Federation03/11/1983
Saint Kitts and Nevis24/12/1997
Saint Lucia12/07/2000
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines28/10/1983
Samoa07/02/2002
Sao Tome and Principe29/10/1998
Saudi Arabia-
Senegal16/01/1997
Serbia27/04/1992
Seychelles28/11/1990
Sierra Leone26/07/2001
Singapore01/11/1990
Slovakia01/01/1993
Slovenia25/06/1991
Solomon Islands30/06/2004
South Africa28/11/1984
Spain06/07/1984
Sri Lanka24/06/1997
Suriname04/11/1988
Sweden09/06/1980
Switzerland15/12/1987
Syrian Arab Republic09/11/1988
Thailand02/11/2007
Togo09/02/1990
Tonga01/02/1996
Trinidad and Tobago06/03/2000
Tunisia10/10/1980
Turkey10/10/1990
Turkmenistan04/02/2009
Tuvalu22/08/1985
Ukraine25/10/1993
United Arab Emirates15/01/2007
United Kingdom22/05/1980
United Republic of Tanzania23/07/2008
United States of America12/08/1980
Uruguay30/04/1979
Vanuatu13/04/1989
Venezuela29/07/1994
Viet Nam29/05/1991
Treaties analysis
YearRatifications
19789
19791
19809
19812
19823
198312
19846
19855
19865
19874
19887
19893
19906
199110
19927
19937
19948
19953
19962
19977
19982
19992
20005
20016
20026
20031
20041
20052
20062
20076
20082
20092
20111
20161
Total155
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