Additional Protocol No 4 to Amend the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: Montreal, Canada
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 14/06/1998


Transport and telecommunications

Sub category

Air transport



What is it about?

This Protocol improves and modernises the rules covering international air cargo of the Warsaw Convention (Warsaw, 12/10/1929), as amended by the Hague Protocol (The Hague, 28/09/1955).

Why is it relevant?

This Protocol makes possible the implementation of a ‘paperless’ electronic air waybill, reducing costs and transportation time, consequently improving the provided service. It also replaces the obsolete Convention’s gold standard with Special Drawing Rights (SDR’s), an international agreed unit of value. Consequently, it eliminates the uncertainty about converting the Convention’s liability limits into national currencies. This Convention changes the maximum liability limitation of the carrier from 20.00 USD per Kilogram to 17 SDR’s (Special Drawing Rights) per Kilogram, approximately 23.30 USD per Kilogram. Although it has been superseded by the Montreal Convention (Montreal, 28/05/1999), it is still relevant amongst all the States that are party to the Warsaw System (a system made up by the Warsaw Convention plus amending Protocols and supplementary instruments) and have not yet ratified the Montreal Convention.

Additional Information

The Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air (Montreal, 28/05/1999), also known as Montreal Convention, prevails over this Protocol for States parties to both. Since the Montreal Convention is recent and it is still ratified by a limited number of countries, States may wish to consider ratifying it in conjunction with the Warsaw Convention and its amendments.


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