Antarctic Treaty

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: Washington D.C., USA
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 23/06/1961

Category

Environment and products

Sub category

Protected geographical areas

Groups

UNS

What is it about?

This instrument implements a regime of internationalisation of the Antarctic. The treaty holds all territorial claims in abeyance. It also prohibits military activity, nuclear explosions and the disposal of nuclear waste and promotes scientific research and the exchange of data among contracting states. The Treaty applies to the area south of 60° South Latitude, including all ice shelves and islands. A Protocol on Environmental Protection of the Antarctic Treaty (Madrid, 4 October 1991) supplements the present instrument by absolutely prohibiting any activity relating to mineral resources, other than scientific research for a period of 50 years.

Why is it relevant?

This treaty guarantees the preservation of the Antarctic by preventing the territory of becoming a matter for international disputes. Though it reserves a privileged place for the original Parties (Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, Russia, United Kingdom and the United States all have establishes bases) it permits all State parties to have access to scientific research on the continent.

Additional Information

N/A.

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Country ratifications
CountryRatification date
Argentina23/06/1961
Australia23/06/1961
Austria25/08/1987
Belarus27/12/2006
Belgium26/07/1960
Brazil16/05/1975
Bulgaria11/09/1978
Canada04/05/1988
Chile23/06/1961
China08/06/1983
Colombia31/01/1989
Cuba16/08/1984
Czech Republic14/06/1962
Democratic People's Republic of Korea21/01/1987
Denmark20/05/1965
Ecuador15/09/1987
Estonia17/05/2001
Finland15/05/1984
France16/09/1960
Germany05/02/1979
Greece08/01/1987
Guatemala31/07/1991
Hungary27/01/1984
Iceland13/10/2015
India19/08/1983
Italy18/03/1981
Japan04/08/1960
Kazakhstan27/01/2015
Malaysia31/10/2011
Monaco30/05/2008
Mongolia23/03/2015
Netherlands30/03/1967
New Zealand01/11/1967
Norway24/08/1960
Pakistan01/03/2012
Papua New Guinea16/03/1981
Peru10/04/1981
Poland08/06/1961
Portugal29/01/2010
Republic of Korea28/11/1986
Romania15/09/1971
Russian Federation02/11/1960
Slovakia14/06/1962
South Africa21/06/1960
Spain31/03/1982
Sweden24/04/1984
Switzerland15/11/1990
Turkey25/01/1996
Ukraine28/10/1992
United Kingdom31/05/1960
United States of America18/08/1960
Uruguay11/01/1980
Venezuela24/03/1999
Treaties analysis
YearRatifications
19608
19614
19622
19652
19672
19711
19751
19781
19791
19801
19813
19821
19834
19844
19861
19874
19881
19891
19901
19911
19921
19961
19991
20011
20061
20081
20101
20111
20121
20153
Total56
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