Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: Vienna, Austria
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 22/09/1988

Category

Environment and products

Sub category

Air

Groups

UNEP

What is it about?

State parties to this Convention agree to take appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting from human activities that modify the ozone layer. States agree to co-operation by means of systematic observations, research, and information exchange to better understand the effects on human health and the environment from the modification of the ozone layer. They as well agree to adopt appropriate legislative or administrative measures to control, limit, reduce or prevent activities causing damage to the ozone. They also consent to co-operate in the formulation of agreed measures procedures and standards, as well as to co-operate in harmonizing their policies. The Montreal Protocol was adopted on 16 September 1987 (184 State Parties as of 2003). The Montreal Protocol stipulates that the production and consumption of compounds that deplete ozone in the stratosphere such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform, must have been phased out by the year 2000. Other harmful chemicals are presently being phased out. State parties are not allowed to engage in international trade with such dangerous substances. Developing countries benefit from a ten-year grace period. A system of import and export licences is created by the Protocol, as well as stiff penalties for those State which do not comply with the agreement. An international fund helps developing countries to introduce new and more environmentally friendly technologies and chemicals.

Why is it relevant?

Additionally to health and environmental protection, the 1985 Convention and the 1987 Protocol relate to international trade in requiring States to close their borders to substances suspected of harming the ozone layer and to devices containing such substances.

Additional Information

N/A

  • Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal, 16 September 1987) 1. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (London, 29 June 1990) 2. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Copenhagen, 25 November 1992) 3. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Adopted by the 9th Meeting of the Parties (Montreal, 17 September 1997) 4. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Peking, 03 December 1999)
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (New York, 9 May 1992) 1.Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto, 11 December 1997)
  • Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, 13 November 1979) 1.Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) (Geneva, 28 September 1984) 2.Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 per cent (Helsinki, 08 July 1985) 3.Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Sofia, 31 October 1988) 4.Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Geneva, 18 November 1991) 5.Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions (Oslo, 14 June 1994) 6.Protocol on Heavy Metals (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 7.Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 8.Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone (Göteborg, 30 November 1999)

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Country ratifications
CountryRatification date
Afghanistan17/06/2004
Albania08/10/1999
Algeria20/10/1992
Andorra26/01/2009
Angola17/05/2000
Antigua and Barbuda03/12/1992
Argentina18/01/1990
Armenia01/10/1999
Australia16/09/1987
Austria19/08/1987
Azerbaijan12/06/1996
Bahamas01/04/1993
Bahrain27/04/1990
Bangladesh02/08/1990
Barbados16/10/1992
Belarus20/06/1986
Belgium17/10/1988
Belize06/06/1997
Benin01/07/1993
Bhutan23/08/2004
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)03/10/1994
Bosnia and Herzegovina06/03/1992
Botswana04/12/1991
Brazil19/03/1990
Brunei Darussalam26/07/1990
Bulgaria20/11/1990
Burkina Faso30/03/1989
Burundi06/01/1997
Cambodia27/06/2001
Cameroon30/08/1989
Canada04/06/1986
Cape Verde31/07/2001
Central African Republic29/03/1993
Chad18/05/1989
Chile06/03/1990
China11/09/1989
Colombia16/07/1990
Comoros31/10/1994
Congo16/11/1994
Costa Rica30/07/1991
Cote d'Ivoire05/04/1993
Croatia08/10/1991
Cuba14/07/1992
Cyprus28/05/1992
Czech Republic01/01/1993
Democratic People's Republic of Korea24/01/1995
Democratic Republic of the Congo30/11/1994
Denmark29/09/1988
Djibouti30/07/1999
Dominica31/03/1993
Dominican Republic18/05/1993
Ecuador10/04/1990
Egypt09/05/1988
El Salvador02/10/1992
Equatorial Guinea17/08/1988
Eritrea10/03/2005
Estonia17/10/1996
Ethiopia11/10/1994
Fiji23/10/1989
Finland26/09/1986
France04/12/1987
Gabon09/02/1994
Gambia25/07/1990
Georgia21/03/1996
Germany30/09/1988
Ghana24/07/1989
Greece29/12/1988
Grenada31/03/1993
Guatemala11/09/1987
Guinea25/06/1992
Guinea-Bissau12/11/2002
Guyana12/08/1993
Haiti29/03/2000
Holy See05/05/2008
Honduras14/10/1993
Hungary04/05/1988
Iceland29/08/1989
India18/03/1991
Indonesia26/06/1992
Iran03/10/1990
Iraq25/06/2008
Ireland15/09/1988
Israel30/06/1992
Italy19/09/1988
Jamaica31/03/1993
Japan30/09/1988
Jordan31/05/1989
Kazakhstan26/08/1998
Kenya09/11/1988
Kiribati07/01/1993
Kuwait23/11/1992
Kyrgyzstan31/05/2000
Lao People's Democratic Republic21/08/1998
Latvia28/04/1995
Lebanon30/03/1993
Lesotho25/03/1994
Liberia15/01/1996
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya11/07/1990
Liechtenstein08/02/1989
Lithuania18/01/1995
Luxembourg17/10/1988
Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of)10/03/1994
Madagascar07/11/1996
Malawi09/01/1991
Malaysia29/08/1989
Maldives26/04/1988
Mali28/10/1994
Malta15/09/1988
Marshall Islands11/03/1993
Mauritania26/05/1994
Mauritius18/08/1992
Mexico14/09/1987
Micronesia (Federated States of)03/08/1994
Moldova24/10/1996
Monaco12/03/1993
Mongolia07/03/1996
Montenegro23/10/2006
Morocco28/12/1995
Mozambique09/09/1994
Myanmar24/11/1993
Namibia20/09/1993
Nauru20/11/2001
Nepal06/07/1994
Netherlands28/09/1988
New Zealand02/06/1987
Nicaragua05/03/1993
Niger09/10/1992
Nigeria31/10/1988
Norway23/09/1986
Oman30/06/1999
Pakistan18/12/1992
Palau29/05/2001
Panama13/02/1989
Papua New Guinea27/08/1992
Paraguay03/12/1992
Peru07/04/1989
Philippines17/07/1991
Poland13/07/1990
Portugal17/08/1988
Qatar22/01/1996
Republic of Korea27/02/1992
Romania27/01/1993
Russian Federation18/06/1986
Rwanda11/10/2001
Saint Kitts and Nevis10/08/1992
Saint Lucia28/07/1993
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines02/12/1996
Samoa21/12/1992
San Marino23/04/2009
Sao Tome and Principe19/11/2001
Saudi Arabia01/03/1993
Senegal19/03/1993
Serbia12/03/2001
Seychelles06/01/1993
Sierra Leone29/08/2001
Singapore05/01/1989
Slovakia28/05/1993
Slovenia06/07/1992
Solomon Islands17/06/1993
Somalia01/08/2001
South Africa15/01/1990
South Sudan12/01/2012
Spain25/07/1988
Sri Lanka15/12/1989
Sudan29/01/1993
Suriname14/10/1997
Swaziland10/11/1992
Sweden26/11/1986
Switzerland17/12/1987
Syrian Arab Republic12/12/1989
Tajikistan06/05/1996
Thailand07/07/1989
Timor-Leste16/09/2009
Togo25/02/1991
Tonga29/07/1998
Trinidad and Tobago28/08/1989
Tunisia25/09/1989
Turkey20/09/1991
Turkmenistan18/11/1993
Tuvalu15/07/1993
Uganda24/06/1988
Ukraine18/06/1986
United Arab Emirates22/12/1989
United Kingdom15/05/1987
United Republic of Tanzania07/04/1993
United States of America27/08/1986
Uruguay27/02/1989
Uzbekistan18/05/1993
Vanuatu21/11/1994
Venezuela01/09/1988
Viet Nam26/01/1994
Yemen21/02/1996
Zambia24/01/1990
Zimbabwe03/11/1992
Treaties analysis
YearRatifications
19868
19878
198821
198922
199015
19918
199222
199330
199415
19954
199611
19973
19983
19994
20003
20019
20021
20042
20051
20061
20082
20093
20121
Total197
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