United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: New York, USA
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 21/03/1999

Category

Environment and products

Sub category

Air

Groups

UNEP

What is it about?

This instrument aims to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a level that limits interference with the climate system. It also attempts to achieve such stabilization within a sufficient time frame to 1) allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, 2) ensure that food production is not threatened and 3) enable economic development to succeed in a sustainable manner. In this way the effects of global warming can be limited. State parties to the Convention agree to commit themselves to develop and publish national inventories of harmful emission by national sources. They as well commit themselves to formulate national and regional plans to mitigate climate change, as well as to promote and cooperate in the development and diffusion of technologies that reduce emissions. Developing countries may benefit from assistance from developed countries. Certain countries directly exposed to global warming also benefit from special assistance. The Kyoto Protocol, adopted 11 December 1997, supplements the Convention of 1992. It establishes for developed countries and emerging market economy countries a series of standards and requirements.

Why is it relevant?

In addition to health and environmental concerns, the 1992 Convention and the 1997 Kyoto Protocol prevent States from imposing discriminatory or unjustified international trade measures.

Additional Information

Developing countries, even those that emit greenhouses gases, are exempt from the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. A Conference of Parties ensures the application of the Convention and its Protocols.

  • Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto, 11 December 1997)
  • Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna, 22 March 1985) 1. Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal, 16 September 1987) 1.1. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (London, 29 June 1990) 1.2. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Copenhagen, 25 November 1992) 1.3 Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Adopted by the 9th Meeting of the Parties (Montreal, 17 September 1997) 1.4 Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Peking, 03 December 1999)
  • Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, 13 November 1979) 1. Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) (Geneva, 28 September 1984) 2. Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 per cent (Helsinki, 08 July 1985) 3. Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Sofia, 31 October 1988) 4. Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Geneva, 18 November 1991) 5. Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions (Oslo, 14 June 1994) 6. Protocol on Heavy Metals (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 7. Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 8. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone (Göteborg, 30 November 1999)

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Country ratifications
CountryRatification date
Afghanistan19/09/2002
Albania03/10/1994
Algeria09/06/1993
Andorra02/03/2011
Angola17/05/2000
Antigua and Barbuda02/02/1993
Argentina11/03/1994
Armenia14/05/1993
Australia30/12/1992
Austria28/02/1994
Azerbaijan16/05/1995
Bahamas29/03/1994
Bahrain28/12/1994
Bangladesh15/04/1994
Barbados23/03/1994
Belarus11/05/2000
Belgium16/01/1996
Belize31/10/1994
Benin30/06/1994
Bhutan25/08/1995
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)03/10/1994
Bosnia and Herzegovina07/09/2000
Botswana21/07/1994
Brazil28/02/1994
Brunei Darussalam07/08/2007
Bulgaria12/05/1995
Burkina Faso02/09/1993
Burundi06/01/1997
Cambodia18/12/1995
Cameroon19/10/1994
Canada04/12/1992
Cape Verde29/03/1995
Central African Republic10/03/1995
Chad07/06/1994
Chile22/12/1994
China05/01/1993
Colombia22/03/1995
Comoros31/10/1994
Congo14/10/1996
Costa Rica26/08/1994
Cote d'Ivoire29/11/1994
Croatia08/04/1996
Cuba05/01/1994
Cyprus15/10/1997
Czech Republic07/10/1993
Democratic People's Republic of Korea05/12/1994
Democratic Republic of the Congo09/01/1995
Denmark21/12/1993
Djibouti27/08/1995
Dominica21/06/1993
Dominican Republic07/10/1998
Ecuador23/02/1993
Egypt05/12/1994
El Salvador04/12/1995
Equatorial Guinea16/08/2000
Eritrea24/04/1995
Estonia27/07/1994
Ethiopia05/04/1994
Fiji25/02/1993
Finland03/05/1994
France25/03/1994
Gabon21/01/1998
Gambia10/06/1994
Georgia29/07/1994
Germany09/12/1993
Ghana06/09/1995
Greece04/08/1994
Grenada11/08/1994
Guatemala15/12/1995
Guinea07/05/1993
Guinea-Bissau27/10/1995
Guyana29/08/1994
Haiti25/09/1998
Honduras19/10/1995
Hungary24/02/1994
Iceland16/06/1993
India01/11/1993
Indonesia23/08/1994
Iran18/07/1996
Iraq28/07/2009
Ireland20/04/1994
Israel04/06/1996
Italy15/04/1994
Jamaica06/01/1995
Japan28/05/1993
Jordan12/11/1993
Kazakhstan17/05/1995
Kenya30/08/1994
Kiribati07/02/1995
Kuwait28/12/1994
Kyrgyzstan25/05/2000
Lao People's Democratic Republic04/01/1995
Latvia23/03/1995
Lebanon15/12/1994
Lesotho07/02/1995
Liberia05/11/2002
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya14/06/1999
Liechtenstein22/06/1994
Lithuania24/03/1995
Luxembourg09/05/1994
Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of)28/01/1998
Madagascar02/06/1999
Malawi21/04/1994
Malaysia13/07/1994
Maldives09/11/1992
Mali28/12/1994
Malta17/03/1994
Marshall Islands08/10/1992
Mauritania20/01/1994
Mauritius04/09/1992
Mexico11/03/1993
Micronesia (Federated States of)18/11/1993
Moldova09/06/1995
Monaco20/11/1992
Mongolia30/09/1993
Montenegro23/10/2006
Morocco28/12/1995
Mozambique25/08/1995
Myanmar25/11/1994
Namibia16/05/1995
Nauru11/11/1993
Nepal02/05/1994
Netherlands20/12/1993
New Zealand16/09/1993
Nicaragua31/10/1995
Niger25/07/1995
Nigeria29/08/1994
Norway09/07/1993
Oman08/02/1995
Pakistan01/06/1994
Palau10/12/1999
Panama23/05/1995
Papua New Guinea16/03/1993
Paraguay24/02/1994
Peru07/06/1993
Philippines02/08/1994
Poland28/07/1994
Portugal21/12/1993
Qatar18/04/1996
Republic of Korea14/12/1993
Romania08/06/1994
Russian Federation28/12/1994
Rwanda18/08/1998
Saint Kitts and Nevis07/01/1993
Saint Lucia14/06/1993
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines02/12/1996
Samoa29/11/1994
San Marino28/10/1994
Sao Tome and Principe29/09/1999
Saudi Arabia28/12/1994
Senegal17/10/1994
Serbia12/03/2001
Seychelles22/09/1992
Sierra Leone22/06/1995
Singapore29/05/1997
Slovakia25/08/1994
Slovenia01/12/1995
Solomon Islands28/12/1994
Somalia11/09/2009
South Africa29/08/1997
South Sudan17/02/2014
Spain21/12/1993
Sri Lanka23/11/1993
Sudan19/11/1993
Suriname14/10/1996
Swaziland07/10/1996
Sweden23/06/1993
Switzerland10/12/1993
Syrian Arab Republic04/01/1996
Tajikistan07/01/1998
Thailand28/12/1994
Timor-Leste10/10/2006
Togo08/03/1995
Tonga20/07/1998
Trinidad and Tobago24/06/1994
Tunisia15/07/1993
Turkey24/02/2004
Turkmenistan05/06/1995
Tuvalu26/10/1993
Uganda08/09/1993
Ukraine13/05/1997
United Arab Emirates29/12/1995
United Kingdom08/12/1993
United Republic of Tanzania17/04/1996
United States of America15/10/1992
Uruguay18/08/1994
Uzbekistan20/06/1993
Vanuatu25/03/1993
Venezuela28/12/1994
Viet Nam16/11/1994
Yemen21/02/1996
Zambia28/05/1993
Zimbabwe03/11/1992
Treaties analysis
YearRatifications
19929
199344
199464
199535
199612
19975
19987
19994
20005
20011
20022
20041
20062
20071
20092
20111
20141
Total196
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