Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: Montreal, Canada
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 04/11/2003

Category

Transport and telecommunications

Sub category

Air transport

Groups

ICAOOPENESS TO MTRS

What is it about?

This Convention lays down the basic rules in the area of claims arising in international carriage of persons, baggage or cargo performed by aircraft.

Why is it relevant?

This instrument is designed to replace the Warsaw Convention System and to eliminate the need for the patchwork of regulation and private voluntary agreements. With regard to the Warsaw System, it contains the following developments: the removal of all arbitrary limits on recovery for passenger death or injury; the imposition of strict liability (no-fault liability) on carriers for the first 100,000 SDR (approximately 141.000 USD) of proven damages in the event of passenger death or injury (in the Warsaw System, limits to liability applied in all cases except where the harm was due to the carrier wilful misconduct); the expansion of the bases for jurisdiction for claims relating to passenger death or injury to permit suits in the passenger's homeland if certain conditions are met; the clarification of the obligations of carriers engaged in code-sharing operations (it is a co-operation between airlines where one airline offers transport services under its own name by using the services of another carrier); and the preservation of all key benefits achieved for the air cargo industry by the previous conventions (see Montreal Protocol No. 4).

Additional Information

This Convention prevails over any rules which apply to international carriage by air between States Parties to this Convention. These rules that have been superseded by the Montreal Convention include the following instruments: a) the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to International Carriage by Air signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929 (hereinafter called the Warsaw Convention); (b) the Protocol to amend the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to International Carriage by Air signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929, done at The Hague on 28 September 1955 (hereinafter called The Hague Protocol); (c) the Convention, Supplementary to the Warsaw Convention, for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to International Carriage by Air Performed by a Person other than the Contracting Carrier, signed at Guadalajara on 18 September 1961 (hereinafter called the Guadalajara Convention); (d) the Protocol to amend the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to International Carriage by Air signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929 as amended by the Protocol done at The Hague on 28 September 1955, signed at Guatemala City on 8 March 1971 (hereinafter called the Guatemala City Protocol); (e) Additional Protocol Nos. 1 to 3 and Montreal Protocol No. 4 to amend the Warsaw Convention as amended by The Hague Protocol or the Warsaw Convention asamended by both The Hague Protocol and the Guatemala City Protocol, signed at Montreal on 25 September 1975 (hereinafter called the Montreal Protocols). Since the Montreal Convention is recent and it is still ratified by a limited number of countries, States may wish to consider ratifying it in conjunction with the Warsaw Convention and its amendments.

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Country ratifications
CountryRatification date
Albania20/10/2004
Argentina16/12/2009
Armenia16/04/2010
Australia25/11/2008
Austria29/04/2004
Azerbaijan10/02/2015
Bahrain02/02/2001
Barbados02/01/2002
Belgium29/04/2004
Belize24/08/1999
Benin30/03/2004
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)06/05/2015
Bosnia and Herzegovina09/03/2007
Botswana28/03/2001
Brazil19/05/2006
Bulgaria10/11/2003
Burkina Faso25/06/2013
Cameroon05/09/2003
Canada19/11/2002
Cape Verde23/08/2004
Chile19/03/2009
China01/06/2005
Colombia28/03/2003
Congo19/12/2011
Costa Rica04/02/2015
Cote d'Ivoire04/02/2015
Croatia23/01/2008
Cuba14/10/2005
Cyprus20/11/2002
Czech Republic16/11/2000
Democratic Republic of the Congo21/07/2014
Denmark29/04/2004
Dominican Republic21/09/2007
Ecuador27/06/2006
Egypt24/02/2005
El Salvador07/11/2007
Equatorial Guinea18/09/2015
Estonia10/04/2003
Ethiopia23/04/2014
Fiji10/11/2015
Finland29/04/2004
France29/04/2004
Gabon04/02/2014
Gambia10/03/2004
Georgia20/12/2010
Germany29/04/2004
Greece22/07/2002
Guyana23/12/2014
Honduras25/11/2015
Hungary08/11/2004
Iceland17/06/2004
India01/05/2009
Ireland29/04/2004
Israel19/01/2011
Italy29/04/2004
Jamaica07/07/2009
Japan20/06/2000
Jordan12/04/2002
Kazakhstan02/07/2015
Kenya07/01/2002
Kuwait11/06/2002
Latvia17/12/2004
Lebanon15/03/2005
Lithuania30/11/2004
Luxembourg29/04/2004
Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of)15/05/2000
Madagascar28/12/2006
Malaysia31/12/2007
Maldives31/10/2005
Mali16/01/2008
Malta05/05/2004
Mexico20/11/2000
Moldova17/03/2009
Monaco18/08/2004
Mongolia05/10/2004
Montenegro15/01/2010
Morocco15/04/2010
Mozambique27/01/2014
Namibia27/09/2001
Netherlands29/04/2004
New Zealand18/11/2002
Nigeria10/05/2002
Norway29/04/2004
Oman28/05/2007
Pakistan19/12/2006
Panama13/09/2002
Paraguay29/03/2001
Peru11/04/2002
Philippines19/10/2015
Poland17/01/2006
Portugal28/02/2003
Qatar15/11/2004
Republic of Korea30/10/2007
Romania20/03/2001
Rwanda20/10/2015
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines29/03/2004
Saudi Arabia15/10/2003
Serbia03/02/2010
Seychelles13/09/2010
Sierra Leone17/09/2007
Singapore17/09/2007
Slovakia11/10/2000
Slovenia27/03/2002
South Africa22/11/2006
Spain29/04/2004
Sweden29/04/2004
Switzerland07/07/2005
Syrian Arab Republic18/07/2002
Tonga20/11/2003
Turkey25/01/2011
Ukraine06/03/2009
United Arab Emirates07/07/2000
United Kingdom29/04/2004
United Republic of Tanzania11/02/2003
United States of America05/09/2003
Uruguay04/02/2008
Vanuatu09/11/2005
Treaties analysis
YearRatifications
19991
20006
20015
200213
20039
200428
20059
20066
20078
20084
20096
20106
20113
20131
20145
201510
Total120
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