International Air Services Transit Agreement

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: Chicago, USA
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 30/01/1945

Category

Transport and telecommunications

Sub category

Aircrafts and civil aviation

Groups

ICAO

What is it about?

Also known as the ‘Two Freedoms’ Agreement, this instrument recognizes and establishes two freedoms of air in respect of scheduled international air services, which encompass the rights (i) to fly across the Contracting States’ territory without landing and (ii) to land for non-traffic purposes. It also deals with the designation of routes to be followed within the Contracting States’ territory; the charges for the use of airport and other facilities related to air transit; and the settlement of disagreements amongst the Contracting Parties.

Why is it relevant?

The two freedoms established by this instrument, referred to as technical rights, constitute part of most current bilateral air transport agreements, allowing direct air services and facilitating air transport. In addition, this agreement has more than 120 Contracting Parties, representing an international legal harmonization on international air transit.

Additional Information

The present Agreement deals specifically with some aspects of transit rights (rights related to the act of passing through the territory of another State), leaving the actual regulation of international scheduled flights mostly to bilateral agreements. On their part, bilateral air transport agreements establish a regulatory mechanism for the performance of air service between the participating Governments, determining items such as international airline routes, frequency, and capacity.1 In this sense, bilateral agreements constitute an essential instrument of international aviation diplomacy. The privileges stipulated by this agreement are not applicable with respect to airports utilized for military purposes to the exclusion of any scheduled international air services. In addition, the exercise of these privileges should be also in accordance with the provisions of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (also signed in Chicago, 07/12/1944). 1 For many years, Governments used as a model for bilateral air services agreement the bilateral agreement between United States and Great Britain, known as Bermuda I (1949). In 1976, Great Britain renounced the Bermuda I and one year later another bilateral agreement was negotiated, the Bermuda II. Nevertheless, Governments have not resorted to this last agreement as a model. This refusal is justified by its very detailed approach, which specifically deals with the relationship between the United States and Great Britain.

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Country ratifications
CountryRatification date
Afghanistan17/05/1945
Albania21/10/1997
Algeria16/04/1964
Antigua and Barbuda16/11/1988
Argentina04/06/1946
Armenia29/05/1996
Australia28/08/1945
Austria10/12/1958
Azerbaijan03/03/2000
Bahamas27/06/1975
Bahrain12/10/1971
Bangladesh09/02/1979
Barbados10/07/1970
Belgium19/07/1945
Benin23/04/1963
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)04/04/1947
Bosnia and Herzegovina03/03/1995
Brunei Darussalam03/01/1985
Bulgaria21/09/1970
Burkina Faso25/09/1992
Burundi18/02/1968
Cameroon30/03/1960
Chile24/04/1974
Congo26/08/2013
Costa Rica01/05/1958
Cote d'Ivoire20/03/1961
Croatia12/06/1993
Cuba20/06/1947
Cyprus12/10/1961
Czech Republic13/12/1994
Democratic People's Republic of Korea08/02/1995
Denmark01/12/1948
Ecuador28/07/1983
Egypt13/03/1947
El Salvador01/06/1945
Estonia16/08/1995
Ethiopia22/03/1945
Fiji14/02/1973
Finland09/04/1957
France24/06/1948
Gabon15/01/1970
Georgia08/10/2003
Germany08/06/1956
Greece21/09/1945
Guatemala28/04/1947
Guinea05/11/1998
Guyana28/04/1986
Honduras13/11/1945
Hungary15/01/1973
Iceland21/03/1947
India02/05/1945
Iran19/04/1950
Iraq15/06/1945
Ireland15/11/1957
Israel16/06/1954
Italy27/06/1984
Jamaica18/10/1963
Japan20/10/1953
Jordan18/03/1947
Kazakhstan09/07/2007
Kuwait17/06/1960
Latvia21/05/1997
Lebanon05/06/1974
Lesotho02/10/1975
Liberia19/03/1945
Luxembourg28/04/1948
Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of)04/01/1993
Madagascar14/05/1962
Malawi27/03/1975
Malaysia31/05/1945
Mali27/05/1970
Malta04/06/1965
Mauritania11/05/1979
Mauritius13/09/1971
Mexico25/06/1946
Moldova21/11/1994
Monaco03/01/1996
Mongolia15/04/2004
Montenegro05/10/2007
Morocco26/08/1957
Nauru24/09/1975
Nepal23/11/1965
Netherlands12/01/1945
New Zealand19/04/1945
Nicaragua28/12/1945
Niger16/03/1962
Nigeria25/01/1961
Norway30/01/1945
Oman23/02/1973
Pakistan15/08/1947
Palau03/11/1995
Panama08/10/1982
Paraguay27/07/1945
Philippines22/03/1946
Poland06/04/1945
Portugal01/09/1959
Qatar25/06/2008
Republic of Korea22/06/1960
Rwanda06/07/1964
San Marino29/06/2007
Senegal08/03/1961
Serbia10/07/2002
Seychelles16/10/1979
Singapore22/08/1966
Slovakia06/03/1995
Slovenia28/12/1992
Somalia10/06/1964
South Africa30/11/1945
Spain30/07/1945
Sri Lanka31/05/1945
Suriname04/01/2008
Swaziland30/04/1973
Sweden19/11/1945
Switzerland06/07/1945
Syrian Arab Republic25/11/2005
Thailand06/03/1947
Togo16/09/1965
Trinidad and Tobago13/04/1963
Tunisia26/04/1962
Turkey06/06/1945
Ukraine14/08/1997
United Arab Emirates25/05/1972
United Kingdom31/05/1945
United States of America08/02/1945
Uzbekistan17/02/1997
Vanuatu14/01/1988
Venezuela28/03/1946
Zambia13/10/1965
Zimbabwe29/02/2008
Treaties analysis
YearRatifications
194525
19464
19478
19484
19501
19531
19541
19561
19573
19582
19591
19603
19614
19623
19633
19643
19654
19661
19681
19704
19712
19721
19734
19742
19754
19793
19821
19831
19841
19851
19861
19882
19922
19932
19942
19955
19962
19974
19981
20001
20021
20031
20041
20051
20073
20083
20131
Total130
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