Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: Kyoto, Japan
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 16/02/2005

Category

Environment and products

Sub category

Air

Groups

UNEP

What is it about?

This instrument establishes for State parties numerical percentage goals for the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, so as to prevent global warming. It is adopted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (New York, 9 May 1992). The Kyoto Protocol concerns six gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFC, PFC and SF6). Developed countries are required to lower their emissions of these noxious gases by at least 5% below the 1990 levels. The requirements vary by State but must be established at least between 2008 and 2012. In order to achieve these objectives, State parties are required to improve their energy yield, reform their energy and transport sectors, promote the usage of renewable energies and to protect their forests. Some flexibility is offered to States that cannot reduce their internal emissions enough to satisfy their international obligations. The Protocol includes three market-based instruments known as the Kyoto Mechanisms that allow countries to earn or buy credits outside their borders. States may also fulfil their obligations by financing projects leading to the reduction of greenhouse gases. These projects may be undertaken on either their own territory or that of another State.

Why is it relevant?

In addition to protecting health and the environment, the Kyoto Protocol of 1997 prevents States from establishing discriminatory practices related to international trade under the guise of greenhouse gas protections. Developing countries are not restricted by the Kyoto Protocol, even those that emit the most greenhouse gases. Signatory developing countries benefit, however, from greenhouse gas reduction projects financed on their territory.

Additional Information

N/A

  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (New York, 9 May 1992)
  • Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna, 22 March 1985)
  • 1.Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal, 16 September 1987)
  • 1.1. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (London, 29 June 1990)
  • 1.2. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Copenhagen, 25 November 1992)
  • 1.3 Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Adopted by the 9th Meeting of the Parties (Montreal, 17 September 1997)
  • 1.4 Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Peking, 03 December 1999)
  • Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, 13 November 1979) 1. Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) (Geneva, 28 September 1984) 2. Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 per cent (Helsinki, 08 July 1985) 3. Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Sofia, 31 October 1988) 4. Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Geneva, 18 November 1991) 5. Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions (Oslo, 14 June 1994) 6. Protocol on Heavy Metals (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 7. Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 8. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone (Göteborg, 30 November 1999)

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Country ratifications
CountryRatification date
Afghanistan01/04/2016
Albania01/04/2005
Algeria16/02/2005
Angola08/05/2007
Antigua and Barbuda03/11/1998
Argentina28/09/2001
Armenia25/04/2003
Australia12/12/2007
Austria31/05/2002
Azerbaijan28/09/2000
Bahamas09/04/1999
Bahrain31/01/2006
Bangladesh22/10/2001
Barbados07/08/2000
Belarus26/08/2005
Belgium31/05/2002
Belize26/09/2003
Benin25/02/2002
Bhutan26/08/2002
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)30/11/1999
Bosnia and Herzegovina16/04/2007
Botswana08/08/2003
Brazil23/08/2002
Brunei Darussalam20/08/2009
Bulgaria15/08/2002
Burkina Faso31/05/2005
Burundi18/10/2001
Cambodia22/08/2002
Cameroon28/08/2002
Cape Verde10/02/2006
Central African Republic18/03/2008
Chad18/08/2009
Chile26/08/2002
China30/08/2002
Colombia30/11/2001
Comoros10/04/2008
Congo12/02/2007
Costa Rica09/08/2002
Cote d'Ivoire23/04/2007
Croatia30/05/2007
Cuba30/04/2002
Cyprus16/07/1999
Czech Republic15/11/2001
Democratic People's Republic of Korea27/04/2005
Democratic Republic of the Congo23/05/2005
Denmark31/05/2002
Djibouti12/03/2002
Dominica25/01/2005
Dominican Republic12/02/2002
Ecuador13/01/2000
Egypt12/01/2005
El Salvador30/11/1998
Equatorial Guinea16/08/2000
Eritrea28/07/2005
Estonia14/10/2002
Ethiopia14/04/2005
Fiji17/09/1998
Finland31/05/2002
France31/05/2002
Gabon12/12/2006
Gambia01/06/2001
Georgia16/06/1999
Germany31/05/2002
Ghana30/05/2003
Greece31/05/2002
Grenada06/08/2002
Guatemala05/10/1999
Guinea07/09/2000
Guinea-Bissau18/11/2005
Guyana05/08/2003
Haiti06/07/2005
Honduras19/07/2000
Hungary21/08/2002
Iceland23/05/2002
India26/08/2002
Indonesia03/12/2004
Iran22/08/2005
Iraq28/07/2009
Ireland31/05/2002
Israel15/03/2004
Italy31/05/2002
Jamaica28/06/1999
Japan04/06/2002
Jordan17/01/2003
Kazakhstan19/06/2009
Kenya25/02/2005
Kiribati07/09/2000
Kuwait11/03/2005
Kyrgyzstan13/05/2003
Lao People's Democratic Republic06/02/2003
Latvia05/07/2002
Lebanon13/11/2006
Lesotho06/09/2000
Liberia05/11/2002
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya24/08/2006
Liechtenstein03/12/2004
Lithuania03/01/2003
Luxembourg31/05/2002
Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of)18/11/2004
Madagascar24/09/2003
Malawi26/10/2001
Malaysia04/09/2002
Maldives30/12/1998
Mali28/03/2002
Malta11/11/2001
Marshall Islands11/08/2003
Mauritania22/07/2005
Mauritius09/05/2001
Mexico07/09/2000
Micronesia (Federated States of)21/06/1999
Moldova22/04/2003
Monaco27/02/2006
Mongolia15/12/1999
Montenegro04/06/2007
Morocco25/01/2002
Mozambique18/01/2005
Myanmar13/08/2003
Namibia04/09/2003
Nauru16/08/2001
Nepal16/09/2005
Netherlands31/05/2002
New Zealand19/12/2002
Nicaragua18/11/1999
Niger30/09/2004
Nigeria10/12/2004
Norway30/05/2002
Oman19/01/2005
Pakistan11/01/2005
Palau10/12/1999
Panama05/03/1999
Papua New Guinea28/03/2002
Paraguay27/08/1999
Peru12/09/2002
Philippines20/11/2003
Poland13/12/2002
Portugal31/05/2002
Qatar11/01/2005
Republic of Korea08/11/2002
Romania19/03/2001
Russian Federation18/11/2004
Rwanda22/07/2004
Saint Kitts and Nevis08/04/2008
Saint Lucia20/08/2003
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines31/12/2004
Samoa27/11/2000
San Marino28/04/2010
Sao Tome and Principe25/04/2008
Saudi Arabia31/01/2005
Senegal20/07/2001
Serbia19/10/2007
Seychelles22/07/2002
Sierra Leone10/11/2006
Singapore12/04/2006
Slovakia31/05/2002
Slovenia02/08/2002
Solomon Islands13/03/2003
Somalia27/07/2010
South Africa31/07/2002
Spain31/05/2002
Sri Lanka03/09/2002
Sudan02/11/2004
Suriname25/09/2006
Swaziland13/01/2006
Sweden31/05/2002
Switzerland09/07/2003
Syrian Arab Republic27/01/2006
Tajikistan05/01/2009
Thailand28/08/2002
Timor-Leste14/10/2008
Togo02/07/2004
Tonga14/01/2008
Trinidad and Tobago28/01/1999
Tunisia22/01/2003
Turkey28/05/2009
Turkmenistan11/01/1999
Tuvalu16/11/1998
Uganda25/03/2002
Ukraine12/04/2004
United Arab Emirates26/01/2005
United Kingdom31/05/2002
United Republic of Tanzania26/08/2002
Uruguay05/02/2001
Uzbekistan12/10/1999
Vanuatu17/07/2001
Venezuela18/02/2005
Viet Nam25/09/2002
Yemen15/09/2004
Zambia07/07/2006
Zimbabwe30/06/2009
Treaties analysis
YearRatifications
19985
199915
200010
200114
200256
200319
200413
200524
200612
20078
20086
20097
20102
20161
Total192
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