Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: Montreal, Canada
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 11/09/2003

Category

Environment and products

Sub category

Flora and fauna

Groups

UNEP

What is it about?

The present instrument, adopted in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio, 05 January 1992), intends to prevent hazards associated with the creation, handling, transfer and use of genetically modified organisms. By applying the “precautionary principle” on an international level, the Cartagena Protocol enables State Parties to ban the import of genetically modified organisms even if no scientific evidence exists of them causing harm for people or nature. To ensure transparency of transboundary movement of genetically modified organisms, the Protocol ties these to a “Prior Informed Consent” procedure. The exporting country has to precisely inform the importing country on technical elements allowing for risk assessment and risk management. While an import authorization is given, the traceability of the product has to be ensured by proper labelling. The Protocol establishes a Biosafety Clearinghouse, located in Montreal, in charge of the distribution of information on modified organisms and the registration of State Parties having approved the import or release of such organisms. The provisions of the 2000 Cartagena Protocol do not apply to pharmaceutical products intended for human use, or to the contained use of genetically modified organisms. It applies to modified organisms intended for direct use as food, feed or agricultural seeds.

Why is it relevant?

By regulating transboundary movements of living modified organisms, the 2000 Cartagena Protocol offers more transparency and promotes a strong cooperation on this subject among developed and developing economies. It allows developing countries to assess the hazards of genetically modified organisms, without banning them. It provides legal grounds for refusing import and use of modified organisms in order to avoid that a Member State’s territory is used without prior consent for breeding experiments with genetically modified organisms.

Additional Information

The Party Conference to the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity ensures the application of the present Protocol. The 2000 Cartagena Protocol is open for signature by States and regional economic integration organizations.

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Country ratifications
CountryRatification date
Afghanistan20/02/2013
Albania08/02/2005
Algeria05/08/2004
Angola27/02/2009
Antigua and Barbuda10/09/2003
Armenia30/04/2004
Austria27/08/2002
Azerbaijan01/04/2005
Bahamas15/01/2004
Bahrain07/02/2012
Bangladesh05/02/2004
Barbados06/09/2002
Belarus26/08/2002
Belgium15/04/2004
Belize12/02/2004
Benin02/03/2005
Bhutan26/08/2002
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)22/04/2002
Bosnia and Herzegovina01/10/2009
Botswana11/06/2002
Brazil24/11/2003
Bulgaria13/10/2000
Burkina Faso04/08/2003
Burundi02/10/2008
Cambodia17/09/2003
Cameroon20/02/2003
Cape Verde01/11/2005
Central African Republic18/11/2008
Chad01/11/2006
China08/06/2005
Colombia20/05/2003
Comoros25/03/2009
Congo13/07/2006
Costa Rica06/02/2007
Cote d'Ivoire12/03/2015
Croatia29/08/2002
Cuba17/09/2002
Cyprus05/12/2003
Czech Republic08/10/2001
Democratic People's Republic of Korea29/07/2003
Democratic Republic of the Congo23/03/2005
Denmark27/08/2002
Djibouti08/04/2002
Dominica13/07/2004
Dominican Republic20/06/2006
Ecuador30/01/2003
Egypt23/12/2003
El Salvador26/09/2003
Eritrea10/03/2005
Estonia24/03/2004
Ethiopia10/09/2003
Fiji05/06/2001
Finland09/07/2004
France07/04/2003
Gabon02/05/2007
Gambia09/06/2004
Georgia04/11/2008
Germany20/11/2003
Ghana30/05/2003
Greece21/05/2004
Grenada05/02/2004
Guatemala28/10/2004
Guinea11/12/2007
Guinea-Bissau19/05/2010
Guyana18/03/2008
Honduras18/11/2008
Hungary13/01/2004
India17/01/2003
Indonesia03/12/2004
Iran20/11/2003
Iraq03/03/2014
Ireland14/11/2003
Italy24/03/2004
Jamaica25/09/2012
Japan21/11/2003
Jordan11/11/2003
Kazakhstan08/09/2008
Kenya24/01/2002
Kiribati20/04/2004
Kyrgyzstan05/10/2005
Lao People's Democratic Republic03/08/2004
Latvia13/02/2004
Lebanon06/02/2013
Lesotho20/09/2001
Liberia15/02/2002
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya14/06/2005
Lithuania07/11/2003
Luxembourg28/08/2002
Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of)14/06/2005
Madagascar24/11/2003
Malawi27/02/2009
Malaysia03/09/2003
Maldives02/09/2002
Mali28/08/2002
Malta05/01/2007
Marshall Islands27/01/2003
Mauritania22/07/2005
Mauritius11/04/2002
Mexico27/08/2002
Moldova04/03/2003
Mongolia22/07/2003
Montenegro23/10/2006
Mozambique21/07/2002
Myanmar13/02/2008
Namibia10/02/2005
Nauru12/11/2001
Netherlands08/01/2002
New Zealand24/02/2005
Nicaragua28/08/2002
Niger30/09/2004
Nigeria15/07/2003
Norway10/05/2001
Oman11/04/2003
Pakistan02/03/2009
Palau13/06/2003
Panama01/05/2002
Papua New Guinea14/10/2005
Paraguay10/03/2004
Peru14/04/2004
Philippines05/10/2006
Poland10/12/2003
Portugal30/09/2004
Qatar14/03/2007
Republic of Korea03/10/2007
Romania30/06/2003
Rwanda22/07/2004
Saint Kitts and Nevis23/05/2001
Saint Lucia16/06/2005
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines27/08/2003
Samoa30/05/2002
Saudi Arabia09/08/2007
Senegal08/10/2003
Serbia08/02/2006
Seychelles30/05/2004
Slovakia24/11/2003
Slovenia20/11/2002
Solomon Islands28/07/2004
Somalia26/07/2010
South Africa14/08/2003
Spain16/01/2002
Sri Lanka28/04/2004
Sudan13/06/2005
Suriname27/03/2008
Swaziland13/01/2006
Sweden08/08/2002
Switzerland26/03/2002
Syrian Arab Republic01/04/2004
Tajikistan12/02/2004
Thailand10/11/2005
Togo02/07/2004
Tonga18/09/2002
Trinidad and Tobago05/10/2000
Tunisia22/01/2003
Turkey24/10/2003
Turkmenistan21/08/2008
Uganda30/11/2001
Ukraine06/12/2002
United Arab Emirates12/12/2014
United Kingdom19/11/2003
United Republic of Tanzania24/04/2003
Uruguay02/11/2011
Venezuela13/05/2002
Viet Nam21/01/2004
Yemen01/12/2005
Zambia27/04/2004
Zimbabwe25/02/2005
Treaties analysis
YearRatifications
20002
20017
200230
200339
200432
200521
20067
20077
20089
20095
20102
20111
20122
20132
20142
20151
Total169
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