Protocol to the 1985 Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: Montreal, Canada
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 01/01/1989

Category

Environment and products

Sub category

Air

Groups

UNEP

What is it about?

The Montreal Protocol establishes binding regulations reflecting the principles set forth by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna, 22 March 1985). It regulates the production and usage of substances that deplete the ozone layer and implements a reduction program designed to gradually reduce usage to zero. The Montreal Protocol has been amended five times since its adoption (London 1990, Copenhagen 1992, Vienna 1995, Montreal 1997 and Peking 1999). These amendments enlarge the list of chemical products covered and the extent of the regulation of these products. State Parties to the Protocol are not bound by amendments unless they ratify them. The Protocol additionally prohibits the import of regulated products and substances produced in countries that are not a Party to the present Protocol. A procedure is established to suspend or exclude State Parties that do not respect the obligations resulting out of membership to the Protocol.

Why is it relevant?

In addition to health and environmental protection, the 1985 Convention and the 1987 Protocol have an international trade aspect requiring States to close their borders to substances suspected of harming the ozone layer and devices containing such substances. Largely ratified by the international community, this instrument reconciles environmental necessities with needs of developing countries. Developing countries benefit from a grace period for the phase out of certain chemicals. They may additionally draw from an International Fund designed to help their production sector adapt to the use and production of less polluting goods. They also benefit from the transfer of technology from developed countries related to the production of non-polluting goods.

Additional Information

A state must be a Party to the Vienna Convention of 1985 in order to ratify the 1987 Montreal Protocol.

  • Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna, 22 March 1985)
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (New York, 9 May 1992)
  • 1.Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto, 11 December 1997)
  • Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, 13 November 1979) 1. Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) (Geneva, 28 September 1984) 2. Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 per cent (Helsinki, 08 July 1985) 3. Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Sofia, 31 October 1988) 4. Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Geneva, 18 November 1991) 5. Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions (Oslo, 14 June 1994) 6. Protocol on Heavy Metals (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 7. Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 8. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone (Göteborg, 30 November 1999)

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Country ratifications
CountryRatification date
Afghanistan17/06/2004
Albania08/10/1999
Algeria20/10/1992
Andorra26/01/2009
Angola17/05/2000
Antigua and Barbuda03/12/1992
Argentina18/09/1990
Armenia01/10/1999
Australia19/05/1989
Austria03/05/1989
Azerbaijan12/06/1996
Bahamas04/05/1993
Bahrain27/04/1990
Bangladesh02/08/1990
Barbados16/10/1992
Belarus31/10/1988
Belgium30/12/1988
Belize09/01/1998
Benin01/07/1993
Bhutan23/08/2004
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)03/10/1994
Bosnia and Herzegovina06/03/1992
Botswana04/12/1991
Brazil19/03/1990
Brunei Darussalam27/05/1993
Bulgaria20/11/1990
Burkina Faso20/07/1989
Burundi06/01/1997
Cambodia27/06/2001
Cameroon30/08/1989
Canada30/06/1988
Cape Verde31/07/2001
Central African Republic29/03/1993
Chad07/06/1994
Chile26/03/1990
China14/06/1991
Colombia06/12/1993
Comoros31/10/1994
Congo06/11/1994
Costa Rica30/07/1991
Cote d'Ivoire05/04/1993
Croatia08/10/1991
Cuba14/07/1992
Cyprus28/05/1992
Czech Republic01/01/1993
Democratic People's Republic of Korea24/01/1995
Democratic Republic of the Congo30/11/1994
Denmark16/12/1988
Djibouti30/07/1999
Dominica31/03/1993
Dominican Republic24/12/2001
Ecuador24/11/1993
Egypt28/06/1994
El Salvador08/12/2000
Equatorial Guinea06/09/2006
Eritrea10/03/2005
Estonia17/10/1996
Ethiopia11/10/1994
Fiji23/10/1989
Finland23/12/1988
France28/12/1988
Gabon09/02/1994
Gambia25/07/1990
Georgia21/03/1996
Germany16/12/1988
Ghana24/07/1989
Greece29/12/1988
Grenada31/03/1993
Guatemala07/11/1989
Guinea25/06/1992
Guinea-Bissau12/11/2002
Guyana12/08/1993
Haiti29/03/2000
Holy See05/05/2008
Honduras14/10/1993
Hungary20/04/1989
Iceland29/08/1989
India19/06/1992
Indonesia26/06/1992
Iran03/10/1990
Iraq25/06/2008
Ireland16/12/1988
Israel30/06/1992
Italy16/12/1988
Jamaica31/03/1993
Japan30/09/1988
Jordan31/05/1989
Kazakhstan26/08/1998
Kenya09/11/1988
Kiribati07/01/1993
Kuwait23/11/1992
Kyrgyzstan31/05/2000
Lao People's Democratic Republic21/08/1998
Latvia28/04/1995
Lebanon31/03/1993
Lesotho25/03/1994
Liberia15/01/1996
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya11/07/1990
Liechtenstein08/02/1989
Lithuania18/01/1995
Luxembourg17/08/1988
Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of)09/09/1994
Madagascar07/11/1996
Malawi09/01/1991
Malaysia29/08/1989
Maldives16/05/1989
Mali28/10/1994
Malta29/12/1988
Marshall Islands11/03/1993
Mauritania26/05/1994
Mauritius18/08/1992
Mexico31/03/1988
Micronesia (Federated States of)06/09/1995
Moldova24/10/1996
Monaco12/03/1993
Mongolia07/03/1996
Montenegro23/10/2006
Morocco28/12/1995
Mozambique09/09/1994
Myanmar24/11/1993
Namibia20/09/1993
Nauru12/11/2001
Nepal06/07/1994
Netherlands16/12/1988
New Zealand21/07/1988
Nicaragua05/03/1993
Niger09/10/1992
Nigeria31/10/1988
Norway24/06/1988
Oman30/06/1999
Pakistan18/12/1992
Palau29/05/2001
Panama03/03/1989
Papua New Guinea27/10/1992
Paraguay03/12/1992
Peru31/03/1993
Philippines17/07/1991
Poland13/07/1990
Portugal17/10/1988
Qatar22/01/1996
Republic of Korea27/02/1992
Romania27/01/1993
Russian Federation10/11/1988
Rwanda11/10/2001
Saint Kitts and Nevis10/08/1992
Saint Lucia28/07/1993
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines02/12/1996
Samoa21/12/1992
San Marino23/04/2009
Sao Tome and Principe19/11/2001
Saudi Arabia01/03/1993
Senegal06/05/1993
Serbia12/03/2001
Seychelles06/01/1993
Sierra Leone29/08/2001
Singapore05/01/1989
Slovakia28/05/1993
Slovenia06/07/1992
Solomon Islands17/06/1993
Somalia01/08/2001
South Africa15/01/1990
South Sudan12/01/2012
Spain16/12/1988
Sri Lanka15/12/1989
Sudan29/01/1993
Suriname14/10/1997
Swaziland10/11/1992
Sweden29/06/1988
Switzerland28/12/1988
Syrian Arab Republic12/12/1989
Tajikistan07/01/1998
Thailand07/07/1989
Timor-Leste16/09/2009
Togo25/02/1991
Tonga29/07/1998
Trinidad and Tobago28/08/1989
Tunisia25/09/1989
Turkey20/09/1991
Turkmenistan18/11/1993
Tuvalu15/07/1993
Uganda15/09/1988
Ukraine20/09/1988
United Arab Emirates22/12/1989
United Kingdom16/12/1988
United Republic of Tanzania16/04/1993
United States of America21/04/1988
Uruguay08/01/1991
Uzbekistan18/05/1993
Vanuatu21/11/1994
Venezuela06/02/1989
Viet Nam26/01/1994
Yemen21/02/1996
Zambia24/01/1990
Zimbabwe03/11/1992
Treaties analysis
YearRatifications
198829
198922
199012
199111
199222
199333
199416
19955
199610
19972
19985
19994
20004
200110
20021
20042
20051
20062
20082
20093
20121
Total197
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