Convention on Biological Diversity

General Detail

General Information

  1. Type: Convention
  2. Date of signature:
  3. Place of signature: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  4. Depositary:
  5. Date of entry into force: 29/12/1993

Category

Environment and products

Sub category

Flora and fauna

Groups

UNEP

What is it about?

The objectives of this instrument are 1) the conservation of biological diversity, 2) the sustainable use of its components and 3) the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. The term biological diversity refers to the variability among living organisms from all sources, including diversity within species, between species and ecosystems. Each Contracting Party agrees to cooperate for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. They also agree to share genetic resources and to provide financial support and incentives towards national activities that are intended to achieve the objectives of the Convention. The Cartagena Protocol (29 January 2000) seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology. It establishes an Advance Informed Agreement (AIA) procedure which ensures that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms into their territory (the protocol is concerned with seeds and products destined for animal and human consumption).

Why is it relevant?

By recognizing the sovereign rights of States over their natural resources, the authority to determine access to genetic resources stays with national governments and is subject to national legislation. Developing countries can thus benefit. It also allows the sustainable economic usage of its components.

Additional Information

The 1992 Convention established a Secretariat that is headquartered in Montreal. A Conference of the Parties regularly examinations the implementation of the Convention.

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Country ratifications
CountryRatification date
Afghanistan19/09/2002
Albania05/01/1994
Algeria14/08/1995
Andorra04/02/2015
Angola04/01/1998
Antigua and Barbuda09/03/1993
Argentina22/11/1994
Armenia14/05/1993
Australia18/06/1993
Austria18/08/1994
Azerbaijan03/08/2000
Bahamas02/09/1993
Bahrain30/08/1996
Bangladesh03/05/1994
Barbados10/12/1993
Belarus08/09/1993
Belgium22/11/1996
Belize30/12/1993
Benin30/06/1994
Bhutan25/08/1995
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)03/10/1994
Bosnia and Herzegovina26/08/2002
Botswana12/10/1995
Brazil17/02/1994
Brunei Darussalam27/07/2008
Bulgaria17/04/1996
Burkina Faso02/09/1993
Burundi15/04/1997
Cambodia09/02/1995
Cameroon19/10/1994
Canada04/12/1992
Cape Verde29/03/1995
Central African Republic15/03/1995
Chad07/06/1994
Chile09/09/1994
China05/01/1993
Colombia28/11/1994
Comoros29/09/1994
Congo01/08/1996
Costa Rica26/08/1994
Cote d'Ivoire29/11/1994
Croatia07/10/1996
Cuba08/03/1994
Cyprus10/07/1996
Czech Republic03/12/1993
Democratic People's Republic of Korea26/10/1994
Democratic Republic of the Congo03/12/1994
Denmark21/12/1993
Djibouti01/09/1994
Dominica06/04/1994
Dominican Republic25/11/1996
Ecuador23/02/1993
Egypt02/06/1994
El Salvador08/09/1994
Equatorial Guinea06/12/1994
Eritrea21/03/1996
Estonia27/07/1994
Ethiopia05/04/1994
Fiji25/02/1993
Finland27/07/1994
France01/07/1994
Gabon14/03/1997
Gambia10/06/1994
Georgia02/06/1994
Germany21/12/1993
Ghana29/08/1994
Greece04/08/1994
Grenada11/08/1994
Guatemala10/07/1995
Guinea07/05/1993
Guinea-Bissau27/10/1995
Guyana29/08/1994
Haiti25/09/1996
Honduras31/07/1995
Hungary24/02/1994
Iceland12/09/1994
India18/02/1994
Indonesia23/08/1994
Iran06/08/1996
Iraq26/10/2009
Ireland22/03/1996
Israel07/08/1995
Italy15/04/1994
Jamaica06/01/1995
Japan28/05/1993
Jordan12/11/1993
Kazakhstan06/09/1994
Kenya26/07/1994
Kiribati16/08/1994
Kuwait02/08/2002
Kyrgyzstan06/08/1996
Lao People's Democratic Republic20/09/1996
Latvia14/12/1995
Lebanon15/12/1994
Lesotho10/01/1995
Liberia08/11/2000
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya12/07/2001
Liechtenstein19/11/1997
Lithuania01/02/1996
Luxembourg09/05/1994
Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of)02/12/1997
Madagascar04/03/1996
Malawi02/02/1994
Malaysia24/06/1994
Maldives09/11/1992
Mali29/03/1995
Malta29/12/2000
Marshall Islands08/10/1992
Mauritania16/08/1996
Mauritius04/09/1992
Mexico11/03/1993
Micronesia (Federated States of)20/06/1994
Moldova20/10/1995
Monaco20/11/1992
Mongolia30/09/1993
Montenegro23/10/2006
Morocco21/08/1995
Mozambique25/08/1995
Myanmar25/11/1994
Namibia16/05/1997
Nauru11/11/1993
Nepal23/11/1993
Netherlands12/07/1994
New Zealand16/09/1993
Nicaragua20/11/1995
Niger25/07/1995
Nigeria29/08/1994
Norway09/07/1993
Oman08/02/1995
Pakistan26/07/1994
Palau06/01/1999
Panama17/01/1995
Papua New Guinea16/03/1993
Paraguay24/02/1994
Peru07/06/1993
Philippines08/10/1993
Poland18/01/1996
Portugal21/12/1993
Qatar21/08/1996
Republic of Korea03/10/1994
Romania17/08/1994
Russian Federation05/04/1995
Rwanda29/05/1996
Saint Kitts and Nevis07/01/1993
Saint Lucia28/07/1993
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines03/06/1996
Samoa09/02/1994
San Marino28/10/1994
Sao Tome and Principe29/09/1999
Saudi Arabia03/10/2001
Senegal17/10/1994
Serbia01/08/2002
Seychelles22/09/1992
Sierra Leone12/12/1994
Singapore21/12/1995
Slovakia25/08/1994
Slovenia09/07/1996
Solomon Islands03/10/1995
Somalia10/12/2009
South Africa02/11/1995
South Sudan17/02/2014
Spain21/12/1993
Sri Lanka23/03/1994
Sudan30/10/1995
Suriname12/01/1996
Swaziland09/11/1994
Sweden16/12/1993
Switzerland21/11/1994
Syrian Arab Republic04/01/1996
Tajikistan29/10/1997
Thailand31/10/2003
Timor-Leste10/10/2006
Togo04/10/1995
Tonga19/05/1998
Trinidad and Tobago01/08/1996
Tunisia15/07/1993
Turkey14/02/1997
Turkmenistan18/09/1996
Tuvalu20/12/2002
Uganda08/09/1993
Ukraine07/02/1995
United Arab Emirates10/02/2000
United Kingdom03/06/1994
United Republic of Tanzania08/03/1996
Uruguay05/11/1993
Uzbekistan19/07/1995
Vanuatu25/03/1993
Venezuela13/09/1994
Viet Nam16/11/1994
Yemen21/02/1996
Zambia28/05/1993
Zimbabwe11/11/1994
Treaties analysis
YearRatifications
19926
199339
199464
199529
199627
19977
19982
19992
20004
20012
20025
20031
20062
20081
20092
20141
20151
Total195
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