Singapore

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Singapore ( (listen)), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country located in maritime Southeast Asia. Singapore lies about one degree of latitude (137 kilometres or 85 miles) north of the equator, and is situated off the southern tip of the Malay peninsula, and, by extension, the southernmost extremity of continental Eurasia. The island country is wedged between western Indonesia and peninsular Malaysia, sharing its southern maritime border with the Batam, Bintan, and Karimun archipelago of the former's Riau Islands province, and its northern, western, and eastern maritime borders with the latter's Johor state; it is additionally in the vicinity of Sumatra to its west and Borneo to its east. The island country is enveloped by the littoral waters of the Johore Strait to its north and the Singapore Strait to its south, and is geographically positioned within the confluence of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, being bounded by the Malacca Strait to its west and the South China Sea to its east. The country's territory, which is archipelagic, is composed of one main island, 63 satellite islands and islets, and one outlying islet, the combined area of which has increased by 25% since the country's independence as a result of extensive land reclamation projects.
Throughout its millennia-long history, Singapore was a maritime emporium that fell under the suzerainty of several successive Malay polities: initially a series of ancient to medieval Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empires, subsequently a medieval localised Hindu-Buddhist kingdom, and ultimately two early modern Islamic sultanates. The 1819 arrival of Stamford Raffles, a British colonial officer, and the subsequent establishment of a British East India Company trading post on the island—then part of the Johor Sultanate—marked the genesis of modern Singapore. Five years later, the British and Dutch East India companies partitioned the Sultanate, with the British coercively wresting Singapore from the Sultan in the process, marking the cessation of indigenous rule over the island for the first time in its history. In 1826, Singapore was incorporated into the Straits Settlements, a pan-Malayan presidency of the Company with Penang as capital, and in 1830, the Settlements were annexed to British India as a residency, where they would be governed from the capital of Calcutta under two administrations—until 1858 under Company rule, and—following the Company's collapse in the wake of the 1857 Indian Rebellion—until 1867 under the successive British Raj. In 1867, the administration of the Settlements was transferred to London, bringing them under the direct control of the United Kingdom as a Malayan crown colony.From 1867 to the 1940s, Singapore, having taken over Penang as capital of the Settlements, grew into a thriving entrepôt and settler-colony under the auspices of the British Empire, attracting large numbers of non-indigenous settlers and sojourners from the region and beyond. During the Second World War, Imperial Japan invaded and annexed Singapore, resulting in an interregnum of British colonial rule corresponding with a brief but bloody Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945. Following Japan's surrender in 1945, Singapore was returned to British control; in 1946, the Straits Settlements were dissolved, and Singapore became a standalone crown colony. In 1959, following a protracted period of agitation against colonial rule, Singapore was granted limited autonomy; in 1963, it became fully emancipated from the British Empire upon its federation with the territories of the erstwhile British Malaya and British Borneo to form the new country of Malaysia. However, after two tumultuous years as a constituent state of the Malaysian Federation, marred by violent ethnoreligious strife and other intractable differences between indigenous and non-indigenous groups, Singapore was expelled in 1965, becoming the first country in modern history to gain independence against its will—although this narrative remains contentious. After early years of turbulence, the newly sovereign nation—viewed as a nonviable state by international observers due to its diminutiveness, geostrategic vulnerability, absence of natural resources, and lack of a hinterland—defied odds by rapidly developing and industrialising under the leadership of the inaugural People's Action Party to become a high-income economy and developed country within a single generation.
Singapore is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic with a unicameral legislature that has been characterised by dominant-party rule since independence. It is considered a soft authoritarian technocratic state; the Economist Intelligence Unit rated Singapore a "flawed democracy" in 2019. It is the only truly sovereign city-state in the world; it has its own currency and a well-funded military that is considered the most advanced in Southeast Asia. The country is home to 5.6 million residents, 61% (3.4 million) of whom are Singaporeans; as a legacy of its historical nature as an entrepôt and settler-colony, modern Singapore is a pluralistic country with a racially, culturally, and religiously diverse citizenry, with one indigenous ethnic group, the Malays, and two settler-descended ethnic groups, the Chinese and Indians, forming the historical and contemporary core of the citizen populace. As a reflection of this pluralism, multiracialism has been enshrined as a foundational principle of the state, and has shaped the country's politics and national policies. The country, which is Anglophone, has four official languages: English, Malay, Chinese, and Tamil; Malay, as the ancestral language of the country, is accorded protected status in the country's constitution as the national language, while English is the lingua franca, being spoken as a common tongue by the vast majority of Singaporeans.
The country is one of the five founding members of ASEAN, is the headquarters of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) Secretariat, is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement, and the Commonwealth of Nations, and is a recurrent guest invitee to the annual G20 summit. It is the most developed sovereign nation in Asia, being ranked 9th on the UN Human Development Index, and has the 7th highest GDP per capita in the world. It is also considered by Transparency International to be the most incorruptible nation in Asia, and the fifth most incorruptible worldwide. Singapore is placed highly in key social indicators: education, healthcare, quality of life, personal safety and housing, with a home-ownership rate of 91%. Singaporeans enjoy one of the world's longest life expectancies and one of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world. As a city, Singapore is classified as an Alpha+ global city, and is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies. It is a major financial and shipping hub, consistently ranked the most expensive city to live in since 2013, and has been identified as a tax haven. Singapore is also a popular tourist destination, with well-known landmarks such as the Merlion, Marina Bay Sands, Gardens by the Bay, the Jewel, the Orchard Road shopping belt, the resort island of Sentosa, and the Singapore Botanic Gardens, the only tropical garden in the world to be honoured as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 121 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 42.60%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 48.49%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 79 / 194
Developing country rank: 26 / 87
Developing country Avg. Ratifications: 109 / 282
Small island developing States rank: 2 / 37
Small island developing States Avg. Ratifications: 86 / 282
South-East Asia rank: 3 / 11
South-East Asia Avg. Ratifications: 89 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce2/3 (66.67%)66.67%18.00%2Strong
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement0/40.00%3.00%31Weak
Sale of Goods1/5 (20.00%)45.45%25.00%29Strong
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total321.74%9.00%12Strong
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation0/60.00%26.00%117Weak
Exemption from Duties3/9 (33.33%)33.33%30.00%76Strong
Temporary Admission4/11 (36.36%)41.18%28.00%55Strong
Transit0/40.00%28.00%98Weak
Total930.43%31.00%84Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration2/6 (33.33%)50.00%32.00%29Strong
Judicial cooperation1/5 (20.00%)26.32%36.00%76Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction0/40.00%14.00%29Weak
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
Total330.00%29.00%69Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air5/5 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy0/20.00%25.00%50Weak
Flora and fauna4/10 (40.00%)43.48%68.00%177Weak
Foodstuff1/2 (50.00%)37.50%79.00%136Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea13/26 (50.00%)61.96%46.00%61Strong
Protected geographical areas 0/10.00%27.00%54Weak
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total2662.50%61.00%98Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees2/3 (66.67%)54.55%20.00%5Strong
Total214.63%12.00%52Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption2/4 (50.00%)66.67%50.00%34Strong
Cultural Property1/4 (25.00%)31.25%54.00%142Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime1/2 (50.00%)62.50%80.00%112Weak
Total763.46%68.00%123Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights6/7 (85.71%)85.71%96.00%143Weak
Labour Standards6/8 (75.00%)75.00%86.00%160Weak
Total1280.00%91.00%161Weak
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution1/1 (100.00%)100.00%39.00%1Strong
International Trade Law 8/10 (80.00%)80.00%73.00%56Average
Trade support institutions5/6 (83.33%)83.33%51.00%29Strong
Total1482.35%63.00%46Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting0/10.00%47.00%93Weak
Copyright2/3 (66.67%)90.91%65.00%48Strong
Industrial designs1/2 (50.00%)62.50%31.00%37Strong
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights1/3 (33.33%)38.46%46.00%85Weak
Origin0/30.00%14.00%51Weak
Patents3/5 (60.00%)71.43%57.00%60Strong
Trademarks3/6 (50.00%)59.09%33.00%46Strong
Varieties of plants1/1 (100.00%)100.00%37.00%1Strong
Total1155.79%42.00%64Strong
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total266.67%57.00%2Strong
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber0/10.00%31.00%61Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total138.46%53.00%85Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport5/7 (71.43%)90.48%59.00%4Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 5/9 (55.56%)76.00%74.00%80Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 11/13 (84.62%)94.29%66.00%11Strong
Maritime transport4/12 (33.33%)33.33%27.00%55Strong
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport0/30.00%22.00%50Weak
Road transport0/40.00%31.00%86Weak
Space2/4 (50.00%)66.67%40.00%55Strong
Telecommunications2/2 (100.00%)100.00%47.00%1Strong
Total2960.14%50.00%55Strong
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General0/40.00%30.00%113Weak
Total00.00%30.00%113Weak
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements1/2 (50.00%)50.00%18.00%26Strong
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total272.73%47.00%26Strong
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsSale of Goods
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsProcurement
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Treaties lawGeneral
Instruments ratifications

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