Sudan

Abstract

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The Sudan or Sudan (US: ( listen), UK: ; Arabic: السودان‎ as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (Arabic: جمهورية السودان‎ Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. It houses 37 million people (2017) and occupies a total area of 1.861.484 square kilometres (718.722 square miles), making it the third largest country in Africa. Sudan's predominant religion is Islam, and its official languages are Arabic and English. The capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile.
What is now northern Sudan is home to the first kingdom and Monarch in the world, which ruled Egypt in the early years. The Nubian Civilization gave rise to the Pharaonic civilization and Sudan became known as a part of Upper Egypt. A Nubian civilization called Kush seceded from Upper Egypt and flourished until 350 AD. Kush at the height of power ruled all of Egypt, South Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Eriteria, Gaza Strip, Israel, the West Bank, part of Modern day Syria, Libya, and Jordan. Due to constant warfare with the Assyrian Kush lost territorial gain, and moved its capital first to Nobatia, and then to Meroe forming the Meroe Kingdom. The Kingdom saw the birth of the Meroitic script, a flourishing architecture sector, the building of large monuments, and a long period of flourishing trade and peace with Egypt and Aksum. Peace with Egypt did not last as Meroe supported and aided the revolt in Southern Egypt during the Ptolemaic Kingdom rule and Roman rule. Eventually, leading to full scale invasion by the Meroe king into Southern Egypt, which yielded many war spoils. In return, the Romans lead a Military campaign and invasion into northern Meroe. There was two peace treaties signed between the Nubians and the Romans to end hostility. The last one signed between Emperor Diocletian and the Nubian and Beja Chieftain in 298, in-which he agreed to push the Roman Empire borders north to Philae (South Egypt, south of Aswan) and pay the two tribes an annual gold stipend. Due to unknown reasons in the 4th century Meroe political power waned. It moved its capital three times further south, and a fourth time to Sennar. Whatever the reason might be there is no evidence that support the theory that Meroe collapsed due to a Military campaign by the Kingdom of Aksum. The period after is the 3 Kingdom period, in-which three Nubian Kingdoms emerged, namely Nobatia, Makuria, and Alodia. Also, Blemmyes a large swath of ungoverned land inhabiteted by different tribes of Nubian and Beja emerged in the eastern part of Sudan and Southern Egypt. Many of the Beja and Nubian tribes in Blemmyes pledged loyalty to the king of Nobatia and Makuria. Eventually, within a few years Blemmyes was absorbed into the three kingdoms. After Nobatia consolidated their rule over Blemmyes, their rule extended from Luxor to near the 2nd cataract and were the first of the Nubian kingdoms to get in contact with Christianity. Christianity in Sudan was propagated by Coptic Monks as early as the 1st to 4th century. Records indicate that it was King Silko of Nobatia in the 4th Century who asked the Coptic church to send a representative to explain the Christian faith to him. Once, he heard what they are calling for he accepted Christianity, and all of his kingdom fallowed him and accepted Christianity. Later, the Kingdom of Makuria expanded absorbed Nobatia and Alodia. Makuria's rulers also accepted Christianity and by the 6th century all of The Makuria Kingdom became Christian. The Byzantine Empire tried to expand further into southern Egypt, but failed at defeating the kingdom of Makuria in battle. Also, the Persian Empire was also defeated by the Kingdom of Makuria as they tried to expand South into Southern Egypt.
The 7th century and the rise of Islam and the Arab Empire came as the Arabs defeated both the Persian Empire and Byzantine Empire, and expanded. The Islamic Army met a rare defeat in Southern Egypt when they meet the cavalry and archers of the Kingdom of Makuria. The commander of the Islamic Army was 'Amr ibn al-'As(RA) he meet three rare defeats when he fought the Nubian Army of the Kingdom of Makuria. Thus, he wrote a letter to Umar ibn Al-Khattab(RA) asking for more Soldiers to fight, but Umar ibn Al-Khattab(RA) refused. Further, during the time of the 3rd caliph Uthman ibn Affan(RA) the Islamic Army tried to expand South of Luxor into the Kingdom of Makuria, but it was a stalemate with no territory gain or loss on both sides in a war that lasted 13 years. Thus, The Islamic Empire and the Kingdom of Makuria entered into a treaty called the Baqt treaty. The Baqt treaty came into effect and through trade the people of the kingdom of Makuria came to know about Islam. It was King Jamil who had one of the most influential roles in establishing an Islamic rulership and spreading Islam. He accepted Islam and revived the kingdom of Nobatia autonomy within Makuria. He traveled to the Muslim World and asked the Islamic Caliph for aid to establish an Islamic State. Also, for a tribe to aid him in teaching the religion to the people and to establish an Islamic rulership. The descendants of Ubay ibn Ka'b of the tribe Banu al-Khazraj decided to go and help establish an Islamic State and to teach the people Islam in the kingdom of Makuria. Eventually, the descendants of Ubay ibn Ka'b were able to overthrow the Christian ruler-ship in Makuria and establish an Islamic Rluer-ship. At the height of power the Kingdom of Makuria expanded south to Tanzania and westward to boarder Mauritania. Makuria weakened from internal dispute. As well as, a large Zhd movement that grabbed the kingdom with many of the inhabitants taking an oath of poverty and the forsaken of worldly desire. The movement had such an influence that the Kingdom did not have a standing army in its last days. Eventually, losing territory to the Mamluk Sultanate and then to Banu Kanz. During the 1500s, the Funj and Abdallah Jamma established Sultanate of Sinnar which ruled much of Sudan and conquered several other black African groups settled in the south, including the Dinka, Shilluk, Nuer and Azande. after the Britain occupied Egypt in 1882. The Mahdi forces lead by Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah lead a revolt in Sudan the next year 1883. The first battle between the Mahdi forces and the Egyptian army was the Battle of Aba with a complete victory of the Mahdi forces. Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah forces defeat two Egyptian columns led by British officers (Hicks Pasha and Baker Pasha). Previous, to the battle with Hicks Pasha and Baker Pasha Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah forces decimated the 4000 strong forces of Yusef Pasha to a single man. Moreover, when British Empire sent their talented and exceptional General, General Gordon to lead the evacuation in Khartoum he was killed. The loss of General Gordon was a heavy loss for Britain, and it was one of the most cited reason for the effort to lead a conquest of Sudan. In 1898 Britain succeeded in taking over Sudan, However the rule over Sudan was decentralized. British rule over Sudan and Egypt was known as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan between 1898 and 1955.
The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Independence was proclaimed on January 1, 1956. Shortly after, the First Sudanese Civil War broke out in 1955 and ended in 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and the southern Sudan region that demanded more regional autonomy, representation, and for the all the earnings that come from the south to go to the south. Which the government refused, and saw fit that all the earning of the country goes to the country equally not one region over the other. Sudan had a period of peace till the Second Sudanese Civil War, which was a continuation of the first lead by the SPLA desire for increase autonomy, representation, and control of resources. The war minutely had to do with ethnic or religious differences and more to do with representation and control of resources as quoted by John Garang the leader of the SPLA. The war began in 1983, sanctions were imposed in 1995, and the war ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Per the peace agreement South Sudan had an independence referendum and chose to be an independent nation, and without a single drop of blood, or the use of arm the treaty was respected and South Sudan became an independent nation. The United States lifted sanctions on Sudan on October 6, 2017.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 75 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 28.64%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 33.19%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 160 / 194
Least developed countries rank: 29 / 48
Least developed countries Avg. Ratifications: 79 / 282
Northern Africa rank: 6 / 8
Northern Africa Avg. Ratifications: 111 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce0/30.00%18.00%70Weak
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement0/40.00%3.00%31Weak
Sale of Goods0/50.00%25.00%89Weak
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total00.00%9.00%145Weak
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation1/6 (16.67%)33.33%26.00%71Strong
Exemption from Duties0/90.00%30.00%133Weak
Temporary Admission2/11 (18.18%)23.53%28.00%77Weak
Transit0/40.00%28.00%98Weak
Total519.57%31.00%115Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration0/60.00%32.00%157Weak
Judicial cooperation0/50.00%36.00%119Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction0/40.00%14.00%29Weak
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
Total00.00%29.00%171Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy0/20.00%25.00%50Weak
Flora and fauna6/10 (60.00%)65.22%68.00%91Weak
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea5/26 (19.23%)27.17%46.00%148Weak
Protected geographical areas 0/10.00%27.00%54Weak
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total2051.04%61.00%139Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees0/30.00%20.00%75Weak
Total00.00%12.00%117Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption1/4 (25.00%)41.67%50.00%92Weak
Cultural Property1/4 (25.00%)31.25%54.00%142Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime1/2 (50.00%)62.50%80.00%112Weak
Total657.69%68.00%155Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights6/7 (85.71%)85.71%96.00%143Weak
Labour Standards6/8 (75.00%)75.00%86.00%160Weak
Total1280.00%91.00%161Weak
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution0/10.00%39.00%77Weak
International Trade Law 7/10 (70.00%)70.00%73.00%84Weak
Trade support institutions2/6 (33.33%)33.33%51.00%114Weak
Total952.94%63.00%108Weak
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting0/10.00%47.00%93Weak
Copyright1/3 (33.33%)45.45%65.00%112Weak
Industrial designs0/20.00%31.00%82Weak
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights0/30.00%46.00%120Weak
Origin0/30.00%14.00%51Weak
Patents2/5 (40.00%)47.62%57.00%87Weak
Trademarks2/6 (33.33%)36.36%33.00%68Average
Varieties of plants0/10.00%37.00%73Weak
Total524.21%42.00%128Weak
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total266.67%57.00%2Strong
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber0/10.00%31.00%61Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total138.46%53.00%85Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport3/7 (42.86%)52.38%59.00%110Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 4/9 (44.44%)56.00%74.00%151Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 5/13 (38.46%)60.00%66.00%139Weak
Maritime transport2/12 (16.67%)8.33%27.00%153Weak
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport0/30.00%22.00%50Weak
Road transport0/40.00%31.00%86Weak
Space0/40.00%40.00%120Weak
Telecommunications0/20.00%47.00%114Weak
Total1432.43%50.00%158Weak
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General1/4 (25.00%)41.67%30.00%41Strong
Total141.67%30.00%41Strong
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements0/20.00%18.00%45Weak
WTO Agreements0/10.00%81.00%159Weak
Total00.00%47.00%159Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsFoodstuff
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
Treaties lawGeneral
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsProcurement
ContractsSale of Goods
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
WTOWTO Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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