Mexico

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Mexico (Spanish: México [ˈmexiko] (listen); Nahuatl languages: Mēxihco), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos, EUM [esˈtaðos uˈniðoz mexiˈkanos] (listen), lit. Mexican United States), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi), Mexico is the 13th-largest country in the world. With an estimated population of over 129 million people, Mexico is the tenth-most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states plus Mexico City (CDMX), which is the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the country include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of six cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico City, which was administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain. Castiliian Spanish was the language of the rulers, although indigenous languages continue to be spoken to this day. Roman Catholicism was the only permitted religion; the Catholic Church played a powerful role in ruling the country as millions of indigenous inhabitants were converted to the faith. Dense indigenous populations that could be mobilized to work and the discovery of rich deposits of silver in the north turned the colony into a major source of wealth for the Spanish Empire. The crown established a standing military only in the late eighteenth century, due to external threats, not internal disorder. The institutional military was a path to upward mobility for North American-born Spaniards. The royal army was fought volunteer insurgent forces to a stalemate after a decade of armed conflict. Only when a royal military officer-turned insurgent, Agustín Iturbide, joined with insurgent leader Vicente Guerrero was independence achieved. The territory became a nation state following the crown's recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence.The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by a weak Mexican state, strong, conservative Catholic Church, the intervention of the military in politics, economic inequality, and political conflicts between Conservatives, supported by the wealthy and the military, and Liberals. The Mexican military under Antonio López de Santa Anna was ineffective in the War of Texas Independence in 1836 and the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), which led to huge territorial loss in Mexico's sparsely populated north, contiguous to the United States. With the loss of those wars, Mexican Liberals ousted Santa Anna and the Conservatives, and instituted reforms that curtailed the power the military, the economic power of the church, and protections of indigenous communities, seeking to create a path toward a modern nation-state of which were enshrined in the Constitution of 1857. Conservatives rebelled and for three years (1858–61) the War of the Reform was fought, with the Conservative army defeated on the battle field. Conservatives sought external allies and invited the French Emperor Napoleon III to aid the political cause of Conservatives. The French invaded, and set up Maximilian Hapsburg as emperor; the head of the Mexican republic, Benito Juárez, kept a government in exile. With the end of the U.S. Civil War in 1865, military aid from the United States flowed to the defenders of the republic; the French withdrew their support of the Mexican monarchy. Conservatives were defeated and discredited. The Restored Republic (1867–76) was a brief period of civilian rule, which ended with the coup d'état of Liberal Army General Porfirio Díaz in 1876. During the thirty-year Díaz presidency, his authoritarian rule sought "order and progress." Mexico invited foreign entrepreneurs to invest in modernizing Mexico, building a railway network, investing in commercial agriculture on vast landed estates, and developing extractive and manufacturing industries. The Porfiriato ended with the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which was won by the northern Constitutionalist faction. They drafted a new 1917 Constitution that built on the 1857 Constitution's anticlerical provisions, and empowered the Mexican state to expropriate resources if they were deemed in the national interest. Revolutionary generals of the winning northern faction dominated the 1920s and served became presidents of Mexico, but the 1928 assassination of former general and President-elect Alvaro Obregón led to the formation of the Partido Nacional Revolucionario in 1929 (now the Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI), which continuously held the presidency until 2000, essentially a one-party state. Revolutionary generals who served as presidents of Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s systematically curtained the power of the military and civilian control has meant the military is no longer a political factor, in contrast to elsewhere in Latin America. Opposition victories led Mexico to democratic transition in the 1990s. Since 2006, there is a serious conflict between the Mexican government and various drug trafficking syndicates that lead to over 120,000 deathsMexico has the world's fifteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the eleventh-largest by PPP. The Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, especially the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the OECD. It is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fifth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations (UN), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, and the Pacific Alliance trade bloc.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 158 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 57.19%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 63.62%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 30 / 194
Central America rank: 1 / 8
Central America Avg. Ratifications: 112 / 282
Developing country rank: 2 / 87
Developing country Avg. Ratifications: 109 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency1/2 (50.00%)50.00%2.00%3Strong
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce2/3 (66.67%)66.67%18.00%2Strong
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement0/40.00%3.00%31Weak
Sale of Goods3/5 (60.00%)81.82%25.00%2Strong
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total628.99%9.00%2Strong
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation0/60.00%26.00%117Weak
Exemption from Duties3/9 (33.33%)40.74%30.00%66Strong
Temporary Admission5/11 (45.45%)50.00%28.00%44Strong
Transit0/40.00%28.00%98Weak
Total1035.87%31.00%71Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration2/6 (33.33%)50.00%32.00%29Strong
Judicial cooperation3/5 (60.00%)78.95%36.00%42Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction1/4 (25.00%)100.00%14.00%1Strong
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 1/1 (100.00%)100.00%11.00%1Strong
Total766.00%29.00%20Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air5/5 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy0/20.00%25.00%50Weak
Flora and fauna7/10 (70.00%)71.74%68.00%72Weak
Foodstuff1/2 (50.00%)37.50%79.00%136Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea17/26 (65.38%)57.61%46.00%70Strong
Protected geographical areas 0/10.00%27.00%54Weak
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total3367.19%61.00%67Average
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency1/1 (100.00%)100.00%21.00%1Strong
Bills of exchange and promissory notes1/4 (25.00%)50.00%8.00%1Strong
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees2/3 (66.67%)54.55%20.00%5Strong
Total439.02%12.00%3Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption3/4 (75.00%)75.00%50.00%6Strong
Cultural Property3/4 (75.00%)68.75%54.00%38Strong
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime2/2 (100.00%)100.00%80.00%1Strong
Total1182.69%68.00%30Strong
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights7/7 (100.00%)100.00%96.00%1Weak
Labour Standards8/8 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Total15100.00%91.00%1Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution1/1 (100.00%)100.00%39.00%1Strong
International Trade Law 9/10 (90.00%)90.00%73.00%34Strong
Trade support institutions6/6 (100.00%)100.00%51.00%1Strong
Total1694.12%63.00%22Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting1/1 (100.00%)100.00%47.00%1Strong
Copyright3/3 (100.00%)100.00%65.00%1Strong
Industrial designs1/2 (50.00%)37.50%31.00%64Strong
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights3/3 (100.00%)100.00%46.00%1Strong
Origin1/3 (33.33%)33.33%14.00%24Strong
Patents4/5 (80.00%)85.71%57.00%30Strong
Trademarks3/6 (50.00%)40.91%33.00%63Strong
Varieties of plants1/1 (100.00%)100.00%37.00%1Strong
Total1770.53%42.00%46Strong
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes0/20.00%39.00%152Weak
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total133.33%57.00%148Weak
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources1/1 (100.00%)100.00%24.00%1Strong
Timber1/1 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total3100.00%53.00%1Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport4/7 (57.14%)76.19%59.00%54Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 6/9 (66.67%)88.00%74.00%37Strong
Maritime shipping and load lines 12/13 (92.31%)97.14%66.00%1Strong
Maritime transport3/12 (25.00%)20.83%27.00%103Weak
Multi modal transport 1/2 (50.00%)50.00%4.00%2Strong
Rail transport0/30.00%22.00%50Weak
Road transport0/40.00%31.00%86Weak
Space4/4 (100.00%)100.00%40.00%1Strong
Telecommunications2/2 (100.00%)100.00%47.00%1Strong
Total3260.81%50.00%54Strong
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General2/4 (50.00%)66.67%30.00%11Strong
Total266.67%30.00%11Strong
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements0/20.00%18.00%45Weak
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total145.45%47.00%45Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
ContractsAgency
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsSale of Goods
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
ProductsMarine Resources
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
 
Weak
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsProcurement
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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