Ethiopia

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northwest. Ethiopia has a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi) and over 117 million inhabitants and is the 12th-most populous country in the world and the 2nd-most populous in Africa after Nigeria. The national capital and largest city, Addis Ababa, lies several kilometres west of the East African Rift that splits the country into the African and Somali tectonic plates.Anatomically modern humans emerged from modern-Ethiopia and set out to the Near East and elsewhere beginning in the Middle Paleolithic. In Neolithic times, Afro-Asiatic speaking people reportedly settled in the Nile Valley, dispersing thereafter. In first century, the Kingdom of Aksum emerged as great power in what is now northern Ethiopia, Eritrea and eastern part of Sudan, flourished strong assimilating culture for Ethiopian national identity. During this age, Orthodox Tewahedo Christianity was conceived as state religion and the introduction of Islam in early 7th century. Aksum suffered from recurring external sieges beginning in the Early Middle Ages, and collapsed in early 10th century when female anti-Christian pagan ruler Gudit conducted a raid. The remnant of Aksum fled southward and formed the Zagwe dynasty, ruling for over three centuries.
In 1270, the Ethiopian Empire was formed by Yekuno Amlak, who claimed that the Solomonic dynasty descended from Biblical Solomon and Queen of Sheba via their child Menelik I. The empire saw significant territorial evolution in the Middle Ages, albeit challenged by Muslim polities, the Sultanate of Ifat and its successor Adal Sultanate. Both the Christian (Ethiopia) and Muslim (Adal) polities fought 13 years lasted religious war, until the Ethiopian Empire recaptured its lost vassal state in 1543. In the mid-18th century, Ethiopia experienced decentralization known as Zemene Mesafint – the Emperor became a figurehead controlled by powerful lords such as Yejju Oromos. Imperial power was restored by Emperor Tewodros II at the beginning of his reign in 1855, inaugurating modernization for subsequent emperors.
Under Emperor Menelik II, Ethiopia became the sole independent African nation during the late 19th century Scramble for Africa against the European colonial powers, defeating Italy at the Battle of Adwa in 1896. Menelik II proceeded extensive annexations of remaining kingdoms that would later concluded with the modern border. Ethiopia was the first independent African nation member of League of Nations and the United Nations. In 1935, the Fascist Italian force invaded Ethiopia and annexed with the former colonies of Eritrea and Somaliland that later formed Italian East Africa, but Ethiopia was soon liberated by British army in 1941 and entered a short period of British military administration.Emperor Haile Selassie worked to modernize Ethiopia until the Derg, a communist military junta backed by the Soviet Union, overthrew him in a coup in 1974 and abolished the monarchy. The Derg waged a 16-year civil war with Tigray-Eritrean separatist rebels and Somalia before finally being overthrown by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPDRF) in 1991. The EPRDF coalition-led government, led by the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), was an authoritarian regime and brought the country into the current form of ethnic federalism. After Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed came to power 2018, he ousted the EPDRF and substituted it with his Prosperity Party in 2019. Abiy's tenure amended and liberated the country's policies, but ethnic violence resurged exceptionally, sparking hostility with TPLF members, leading to the ongoing Tigray War in 2020.
Ethiopia is a multiethnic state with 80 different ethnic groups. Christianity is the largest religion followed by Islam. This sovereign state is a founding member of the UN, the Group of 24 (G-24), the Non-Aligned Movement, the G77 and the Organisation of African Unity. Addis Ababa is the headquarters of the African Union, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, the African Standby Force and many of the global NGOs focused on Africa. Ethiopia is classified as developing country, with a growth rate was 9.4% from 2010 to 2020. Despite it being based on mixed economy, private sectors are encouraged to invest in properties. Meanwhile, the country regarded as poor in terms of per capita income and Human Development Index. Agriculture is central part of Ethiopian economy, constituting 80% of major sector.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 74 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 27.43%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 29.93%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 169 / 194
Eastern Africa rank: 14 / 17
Eastern Africa Avg. Ratifications: 84 / 282
Landlocked developing countries rank: 27 / 32
Landlocked developing countries Avg. Ratifications: 86 / 282
Least developed countries rank: 35 / 48
Least developed countries Avg. Ratifications: 79 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce0/30.00%18.00%70Weak
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement0/40.00%3.00%31Weak
Sale of Goods0/50.00%25.00%89Weak
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total00.00%9.00%145Weak
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation0/60.00%26.00%117Weak
Exemption from Duties0/90.00%30.00%133Weak
Temporary Admission0/110.00%28.00%126Weak
Transit0/40.00%28.00%98Weak
Total25.43%31.00%151Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration0/60.00%32.00%157Weak
Judicial cooperation0/50.00%36.00%119Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction0/40.00%14.00%29Weak
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
Total00.00%29.00%171Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy0/20.00%25.00%50Weak
Flora and fauna6/10 (60.00%)65.22%68.00%91Weak
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea2/26 (7.69%)10.87%46.00%157Weak
Protected geographical areas 0/10.00%27.00%54Weak
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total1743.23%61.00%156Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees2/3 (66.67%)54.55%20.00%5Strong
Total214.63%12.00%52Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption1/4 (25.00%)41.67%50.00%92Weak
Cultural Property1/4 (25.00%)31.25%54.00%142Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime2/2 (100.00%)100.00%80.00%1Strong
Total763.46%68.00%123Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights7/7 (100.00%)100.00%96.00%1Weak
Labour Standards8/8 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Total15100.00%91.00%1Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution0/10.00%39.00%77Weak
International Trade Law 7/10 (70.00%)70.00%73.00%84Weak
Trade support institutions2/6 (33.33%)33.33%51.00%114Weak
Total952.94%63.00%108Weak
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting0/10.00%47.00%93Weak
Copyright0/30.00%65.00%172Weak
Industrial designs0/20.00%31.00%82Weak
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights0/30.00%46.00%120Weak
Origin0/30.00%14.00%51Weak
Patents0/50.00%57.00%177Weak
Trademarks0/60.00%33.00%124Weak
Varieties of plants0/10.00%37.00%73Weak
Total00.00%42.00%181Weak
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes0/20.00%39.00%152Weak
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total133.33%57.00%148Weak
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber0/10.00%31.00%61Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total138.46%53.00%85Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport3/7 (42.86%)61.90%59.00%95Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 7/9 (77.78%)92.00%74.00%11Strong
Maritime shipping and load lines 7/13 (53.85%)65.71%66.00%130Weak
Maritime transport2/12 (16.67%)16.67%27.00%135Weak
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport0/30.00%22.00%50Weak
Road transport0/40.00%31.00%86Weak
Space0/40.00%40.00%120Weak
Telecommunications0/20.00%47.00%114Weak
Total1942.57%50.00%127Weak
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General1/4 (25.00%)25.00%30.00%109Weak
Total125.00%30.00%109Weak
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements0/20.00%18.00%45Weak
WTO Agreements0/10.00%81.00%159Weak
Total00.00%47.00%159Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
CustomsCustoms Codification
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsProcurement
ContractsSale of Goods
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
WTOWTO Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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