Estonia

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Estonia (Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsʲti] (listen)), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia. The territory of Estonia consists of the mainland, the larger islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, and over 2,200 other islands and islets on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,339 km2 (17,505 sq mi). The capital city Tallinn and Tartu are the two largest urban areas of the country. The Estonian language is the autochthonous and the official language of Estonia; it is the first language of the majority of its people, as well as the world's second most spoken Finnic language.
The land of what is now modern Estonia has been inhabited by humans since at least 9,000 BC. Ancient Estonians were one of the last "pagan" civilisations in Europe to adopt Christianity following the Papal-sanctioned Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by the Teutonic Order, Denmark, Sweden, and the Russian Empire, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the mid-19th century. This culminated in the 24 February 1918 Estonian Declaration of Independence from the then warring Russian and German Empires, and, after the end of World War I, in the 1918–1920 War of Independence where Estonians were able to repel the Bolshevik Russian invasion and successfully defended their newborn freedom. Democratic throughout most of the interwar period, as a result of the worldwide Great Depression Estonia also briefly experienced rule by decree during the politically non-violent "era of silence" in 1934–1938. During World War II, despite having declared its neutrality, Estonia was repeatedly contested, invaded and occupied, first by Stalinist Soviet Union in 1940, then by Nazi Germany in 1941, and ultimately reoccupied in 1944 by, and annexed into, the USSR as an administrative subunit (Estonian SSR). After the loss of its de facto independence to the Soviet Union, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. Following the bloodless Estonian "Singing Revolution" of 1988–1990, the nation's de facto independence was restored on 20 August 1991.
Estonia is a developed country, with a high-income advanced economy; ranking very high in the Human Development Index. The sovereign state is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. It has a population of 1.3 million, and is one of the least populous members of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the Schengen Area, NATO, and the United Nations Security Council. Estonia has consistently ranked highly in international rankings for quality of life, education, digitalization of public services and the prevalence of technology companies.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 161 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 60.83%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 65.52%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 24 / 194
Europe Union rank: 18 / 28
Europe Union Avg. Ratifications: 180 / 282
Northern Europe rank: 6 / 10
Northern Europe Avg. Ratifications: 174 / 282
Transition economy rank: 4 / 28
Transition economy Avg. Ratifications: 141 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce0/30.00%18.00%70Weak
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement1/4 (25.00%)21.43%3.00%1Strong
Sale of Goods1/5 (20.00%)45.45%25.00%29Strong
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total211.59%9.00%72Strong
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation2/6 (33.33%)40.00%26.00%48Strong
Exemption from Duties2/9 (22.22%)22.22%30.00%92Weak
Temporary Admission1/11 (9.09%)14.71%28.00%94Weak
Transit2/4 (50.00%)72.73%28.00%17Strong
Total932.61%31.00%79Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration4/6 (66.67%)60.00%32.00%11Strong
Judicial cooperation4/5 (80.00%)94.74%36.00%23Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction1/4 (25.00%)100.00%14.00%1Strong
State court procedure1/1 (100.00%)100.00%6.00%1Strong
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
Total1072.00%29.00%6Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy2/2 (100.00%)100.00%25.00%1Strong
Flora and fauna6/10 (60.00%)65.22%68.00%91Weak
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea20/26 (76.92%)82.61%46.00%21Strong
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%)100.00%27.00%1Strong
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total3880.21%61.00%23Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees0/30.00%20.00%75Weak
Total00.00%12.00%117Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption3/4 (75.00%)75.00%50.00%6Strong
Cultural Property2/4 (50.00%)50.00%54.00%61Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime2/2 (100.00%)100.00%80.00%1Strong
Total1076.92%68.00%50Strong
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights7/7 (100.00%)100.00%96.00%1Weak
Labour Standards8/8 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Total15100.00%91.00%1Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution1/1 (100.00%)100.00%39.00%1Strong
International Trade Law 8/10 (80.00%)80.00%73.00%56Average
Trade support institutions5/6 (83.33%)83.33%51.00%29Strong
Total1482.35%63.00%46Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting1/1 (100.00%)100.00%47.00%1Strong
Copyright2/3 (66.67%)90.91%65.00%48Strong
Industrial designs2/2 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights3/3 (100.00%)100.00%46.00%1Strong
Origin0/30.00%14.00%51Weak
Patents5/5 (100.00%)100.00%57.00%1Strong
Trademarks4/6 (66.67%)81.82%33.00%22Strong
Varieties of plants1/1 (100.00%)100.00%37.00%1Strong
Total1884.21%42.00%21Strong
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total266.67%57.00%2Strong
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber0/10.00%31.00%61Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total138.46%53.00%85Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport5/7 (71.43%)90.48%59.00%4Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 6/9 (66.67%)88.00%74.00%37Strong
Maritime shipping and load lines 12/13 (92.31%)97.14%66.00%1Strong
Maritime transport7/12 (58.33%)45.83%27.00%22Strong
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport1/3 (33.33%)27.27%22.00%46Strong
Road transport4/4 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
Space0/40.00%40.00%120Weak
Telecommunications0/20.00%47.00%114Weak
Total3572.30%50.00%29Strong
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General4/4 (100.00%)100.00%30.00%1Strong
Total4100.00%30.00%1Strong
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements2/2 (100.00%)100.00%18.00%1Strong
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total3100.00%47.00%1Strong
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
ContractsProcurement
ContractsSale of Goods
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyOrigin
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
Instruments ratifications

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