Estonia

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Estonia (Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsti] ( listen)), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden to the west (Scandinavia to the far west and north), to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second most spoken Finnic language.
The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This culminated in independence from the Russian Empire in 1918 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I. Initially democratic, Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Era of Silence and the Great Depression. During World War II (1939–1945), Estonia was repeatedly contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany, ultimately being incorporated into the former as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by the Estonian government-in-exile, which was recognized by much of the Western World throughout the Cold War (1945–1991). In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991.
The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union since joining in 2004, the economic monetary Eurozone, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Schengen Area, and of the Western military alliance of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that has been among the fastest-growing in the EU. Estonia ranks very high in the Human Development Index, and performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, education, and press freedom (third in the world in 2012 and 2007). Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care, free education, and the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD. One of the world's most digitally advanced societies, in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, and in 2014 the first state to provide e-residency.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 161 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 60.83%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 65.52%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 24 / 194
Europe Union rank: 18 / 28
Europe Union Avg. Ratifications: 180 / 282
Northern Europe rank: 6 / 10
Northern Europe Avg. Ratifications: 174 / 282
Transition economy rank: 4 / 28
Transition economy Avg. Ratifications: 141 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce0/30.00%18.00%70Weak
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement1/4 (25.00%)21.43%3.00%1Strong
Sale of Goods1/5 (20.00%)45.45%25.00%29Strong
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total211.59%9.00%72Strong
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation2/6 (33.33%)40.00%26.00%48Strong
Exemption from Duties2/9 (22.22%)22.22%30.00%92Weak
Temporary Admission1/11 (9.09%)14.71%28.00%94Weak
Transit2/4 (50.00%)72.73%28.00%17Strong
Total932.61%31.00%79Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration4/6 (66.67%)60.00%32.00%11Strong
Judicial cooperation4/5 (80.00%)94.74%36.00%23Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction1/4 (25.00%)100.00%14.00%1Strong
State court procedure1/1 (100.00%)100.00%6.00%1Strong
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
Total1072.00%29.00%6Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy2/2 (100.00%)100.00%25.00%1Strong
Flora and fauna6/10 (60.00%)65.22%68.00%91Weak
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea20/26 (76.92%)82.61%46.00%21Strong
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%)100.00%27.00%1Strong
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total3880.21%61.00%23Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees0/30.00%20.00%75Weak
Total00.00%12.00%117Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption3/4 (75.00%)75.00%50.00%6Strong
Cultural Property2/4 (50.00%)50.00%54.00%61Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime2/2 (100.00%)100.00%80.00%1Strong
Total1076.92%68.00%50Strong
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights7/7 (100.00%)100.00%96.00%1Weak
Labour Standards8/8 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Total15100.00%91.00%1Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution1/1 (100.00%)100.00%39.00%1Strong
International Trade Law 8/10 (80.00%)80.00%73.00%56Average
Trade support institutions5/6 (83.33%)83.33%51.00%29Strong
Total1482.35%63.00%46Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting1/1 (100.00%)100.00%47.00%1Strong
Copyright2/3 (66.67%)90.91%65.00%48Strong
Industrial designs2/2 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights3/3 (100.00%)100.00%46.00%1Strong
Origin0/30.00%14.00%51Weak
Patents5/5 (100.00%)100.00%57.00%1Strong
Trademarks4/6 (66.67%)81.82%33.00%22Strong
Varieties of plants1/1 (100.00%)100.00%37.00%1Strong
Total1884.21%42.00%21Strong
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total266.67%57.00%2Strong
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber0/10.00%31.00%61Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total138.46%53.00%85Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport5/7 (71.43%)90.48%59.00%4Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 6/9 (66.67%)88.00%74.00%37Strong
Maritime shipping and load lines 12/13 (92.31%)97.14%66.00%1Strong
Maritime transport7/12 (58.33%)45.83%27.00%22Strong
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport1/3 (33.33%)27.27%22.00%46Strong
Road transport4/4 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
Space0/40.00%40.00%120Weak
Telecommunications0/20.00%47.00%114Weak
Total3572.30%50.00%29Strong
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General4/4 (100.00%)100.00%30.00%1Strong
Total4100.00%30.00%1Strong
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements2/2 (100.00%)100.00%18.00%1Strong
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total3100.00%47.00%1Strong
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
ContractsProcurement
ContractsSale of Goods
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyOrigin
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
Instruments ratifications

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