Spain

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Spain (Spanish: España, [esˈpaɲa] (listen)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a country in southwestern Europe with some pockets of territory in the Mediterranean Sea, offshore in the Atlantic Ocean and in northern Africa. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, and its insular territory includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, several small islands in the Alboran Sea and the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. The Spanish territory also includes semi-exclaves of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñon de Vélez across the Strait of Gibraltar. The country's mainland is bordered to the south by Gibraltar, to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea; to the north by France, Andorra and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second-largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth-largest country by area on the European continent. With a population exceeding 47.4 million, Spain is the sixth-most populous country in Europe, and the fourth-most populous country in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Zaragoza, Málaga, Murcia, Palma de Mallorca, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Bilbao.
Anatomically modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 42,000 years ago. The first cultures and peoples that developed in current Spanish territory were Pre-Roman peoples such as the ancient Iberians, Celts, Celtiberians, Vascones, and Turdetani. Later, foreign Mediterranean peoples such as the Phoenicians and ancient Greeks developed coastal trading colonies, and the Carthaginians briefly controlled part of the Spanish Mediterranean coastline. From the year 218 BCE, with the taking of the city of Ampurias, the Roman colonization of Hispania began and, with the exception of the Atlantic cornice, they quickly controlled the territory of present-day Spain. The Romans had driven the Carthaginians out of the Iberian peninsula by 206 BCE, and divided it into two administrative provinces, Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior. The Romans laid the foundations for modern Spanish culture and identity, and was the birthplace of important Roman emperors such as Trajan, Hadrian or Theodosius I.
Spain remained under Roman rule until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fourth century, which ushered in Germanic tribal confederations from Central and Northern Europe. During this period, present-day Spain was divided between different Germanic powers, including the Suevi, Alans, Vandals and Visigoths, the latter maintaining an alliance with Rome via foedus, while part of Southern Spain belonged to the Byzantine Empire. Eventually, the Visigoths emerged as the dominant faction by the fifth century, with the Visigothic Kingdom spanning the vast majority of the Iberian Peninsula, and established its capital in what is now the city of Toledo. The creation of the code of laws Liber Iudiciorum by the King Recceswinth during the Visigothic period deeply influenced the structural and legal bases of Spain and the survival of Roman Law after the fall of the Roman Empire.
In the early eighth century, the Visigothic Kingdom was invaded by the Umayyad Caliphate, ushering in over 700 years of Muslim rule in Southern Iberia. During this period, Al-Andalus became a major economic and intellectual centre, with the city of Córdoba being among the largest and richest in Europe. Several Christian kingdoms emerged in the northern periphery of Iberia, chief among them León, Castile, Aragón, Portugal, and Navarre. Over the next seven centuries, an intermittent southward expansion of these kingdoms—metahistorically framed as a reconquest, or Reconquista—culminated with the Christian seizure of the last Muslim polity, the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, and the control of all Iberia by the Christian kingdoms in 1492. That same year, Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World on behalf of the Catholic Monarchs, whose dynastic union of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon is usually considered the emergent Spain as a unified country. During the centuries after the Reconquista, the Christian kings of Spain persecuted and expelled ethnic and religious minorities such as Jews and Muslims through the Spanish Inquisition. From the 16th until the early 19th century, Spain ruled one of the largest empires in history. It was among the first global empires.
Spain is a developed country, a secular parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a high-income country and an advanced economy, with the world's fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the sixteenth-largest by PPP. Spain has one of the longest life expectancies in the world at 83.5 years in 2019. It ranks particularly high in healthcare quality, with its healthcare system considered to be one of the most efficient worldwide. It is a world leader in organ transplants and organ donation. Spain is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and many other international organisations.
Spanish art, music, literature and cuisine have been influential worldwide, particularly in the Americas. As a reflection of its large cultural wealth, Spain has the world's fourth-largest number of World Heritage Sites (49) and is the world's second-most visited country. Its cultural influence extends over 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 200 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 68.61%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 74.07%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 6 / 194
Developed country rank: 4 / 30
Developed country Avg. Ratifications: 159 / 282
Europe Union rank: 4 / 28
Europe Union Avg. Ratifications: 180 / 282
Southern Europe rank: 2 / 14
Southern Europe Avg. Ratifications: 142 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws1/7 (14.29%)14.29%3.00%9Strong
E-commerce0/30.00%18.00%70Weak
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement0/40.00%3.00%31Weak
Sale of Goods1/5 (20.00%)45.45%25.00%29Strong
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total28.70%9.00%86Weak
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation2/6 (33.33%)40.00%26.00%48Strong
Exemption from Duties7/9 (77.78%)77.78%30.00%6Strong
Temporary Admission10/11 (90.91%)100.00%28.00%1Strong
Transit3/4 (75.00%)100.00%28.00%1Strong
Total2483.70%31.00%1Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration4/6 (66.67%)60.00%32.00%11Strong
Judicial cooperation5/5 (100.00%)100.00%36.00%1Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction1/4 (25.00%)100.00%14.00%1Strong
State court procedure1/1 (100.00%)100.00%6.00%1Strong
State immunities 1/1 (100.00%)100.00%11.00%1Strong
Total1280.00%29.00%1Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy2/2 (100.00%)100.00%25.00%1Strong
Flora and fauna9/10 (90.00%)93.48%68.00%4Strong
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses1/1 (100.00%)100.00%18.00%1Strong
Maritime and Law of the Sea24/26 (92.31%)93.48%46.00%5Strong
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%)100.00%27.00%1Strong
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total4692.71%61.00%5Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees2/3 (66.67%)54.55%20.00%5Strong
Total214.63%12.00%52Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption3/4 (75.00%)75.00%50.00%6Strong
Cultural Property4/4 (100.00%)100.00%54.00%1Strong
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime2/2 (100.00%)100.00%80.00%1Strong
Total1292.31%68.00%2Strong
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights6/7 (85.71%)85.71%96.00%143Weak
Labour Standards6/8 (75.00%)75.00%86.00%160Weak
Total1280.00%91.00%161Weak
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution1/1 (100.00%)100.00%39.00%1Strong
International Trade Law 10/10 (100.00%)100.00%73.00%1Strong
Trade support institutions6/6 (100.00%)100.00%51.00%1Strong
Total17100.00%63.00%1Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting1/1 (100.00%)100.00%47.00%1Strong
Copyright3/3 (100.00%)100.00%65.00%1Strong
Industrial designs2/2 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights3/3 (100.00%)100.00%46.00%1Strong
Origin1/3 (33.33%)33.33%14.00%24Strong
Patents5/5 (100.00%)100.00%57.00%1Strong
Trademarks5/6 (83.33%)95.45%33.00%10Strong
Varieties of plants1/1 (100.00%)100.00%37.00%1Strong
Total2191.58%42.00%5Strong
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total266.67%57.00%2Strong
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber1/1 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total276.92%53.00%23Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport5/7 (71.43%)90.48%59.00%4Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 6/9 (66.67%)80.00%74.00%72Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 12/13 (92.31%)97.14%66.00%1Strong
Maritime transport11/12 (91.67%)87.50%27.00%1Strong
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport3/3 (100.00%)100.00%22.00%1Strong
Road transport2/4 (50.00%)44.44%31.00%63Strong
Space3/4 (75.00%)83.33%40.00%16Strong
Telecommunications1/2 (50.00%)83.33%47.00%26Strong
Total4383.11%50.00%5Strong
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General2/4 (50.00%)66.67%30.00%11Strong
Total266.67%30.00%11Strong
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements2/2 (100.00%)100.00%18.00%1Strong
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total3100.00%47.00%1Strong
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsSale of Goods
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Organized crime
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsProcurement
ContractsTravel contracts
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Instruments ratifications

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