Wikipedia Country Information

Bhutan ( (listen); Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་, romanized: Druk Yul, [ʈuk̚˩.yː˩]), officially known as the Kingdom of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་, romanized: Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas. It is bordered by China to the north and India to the south. Nepal and Bangladesh are located in proximity to Bhutan but do not share a land border. The country has a population of over 754,000 and a territory of 38,394 square kilometers (14,824 sq mi) which ranks 133rd in terms of land area. Bhutan is a constitutional monarchy with Mahayana Buddhism as the state religion.
The subalpine Himalayan mountains in the north rise from the country's lush subtropical plains in the south. In the Bhutanese Himalayas, there are peaks higher than 7,000 meters (23,000 ft) above sea level. Gangkhar Puensum is Bhutan's highest peak and may also be the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The wildlife of Bhutan is notable for its diversity, including the Himalayan Takin. The largest city in Bhutan is the capital Thimphu.
Bhutan and neighboring Tibet experienced the spread of Buddhism which originated in the Indian subcontinent during the lifetime of Gautama Buddha. In the first millennium, the Vajrayana school of Buddhism spread to Bhutan from the southern Pala Empire of Bengal. Tibet, Bhutan, Sikkim and parts of Nepal became the vestiges of the Mahayana schools amid the decline of Buddhism in India. Bhutan also came under the influence of the Tibetan Empire. During the 16th-century, Ngawang Namgyal unified the valleys of Bhutan into a single state. Namgyal defeated three Tibetan invasions, subjugated rival religious schools, codified the Tsa Yig legal system, and established a government of theocratic and civil administrators. Namgyal became the first Zhabdrung Rinpoche and his successors acted as the spiritual leaders of Bhutan like the Dalai Lama in Tibet. During the 17th century, Bhutan controlled large parts of northeast India, Sikkim and Nepal; it also wielded significant influence in Cooch Behar State. Bhutan ceded the Bengal Duars to British India during the Bhutan War in the 19th century. The House of Wangchuck emerged as the monarchy and pursued closer ties with the British in the subcontinent. In 1910, a treaty guranteed British advice in foreign policy in exchange for internal autonomy in Bhutan. The arrangement continued under a new treaty with India in 1949 in which both countries recognized each other's sovereignty. Bhutan joined the United Nations in 1971. It has since expanded relations with 55 countries, including Bangladesh, Israel, Kuwait, Brazil, Japan, Thailand, and Turkey; as well as the European Union. While dependent on the Indian military, Bhutan maintains its own military units.
The 2008 Constitution establishes a parliamentary government with an elected National Assembly and a National Council. Bhutan is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). In 2020, Bhutan ranked third in South Asia after Sri Lanka and the Maldives in the Human Development Index. Bhutan is also a member of the Climate Vulnerable Forum, the Non-Aligned Movement, BIMSTEC, the IMF, the World Bank, UNESCO and the World Health Organization (WHO). Bhutan ranked first in SAARC in economic freedom, ease of doing business, peace and lack of corruption in 2016. Bhutan has one of the largest water reserves for hydropower in the world. Melting glaciers caused by climate change are a growing concern in Bhutan.

Instruments ratified: 60 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 23.68%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 26.89%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 180 / 194
Landlocked developing countries rank: 31 / 32
Landlocked developing countries Avg. Ratifications: 86 / 282
Least developed countries rank: 42 / 48
Least developed countries Avg. Ratifications: 79 / 282
Southern Asia rank: 9 / 9
Southern Asia Avg. Ratifications: 98 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce2/3 (66.67%)66.67%18.00%2Strong
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Sale of Goods0/50.00%25.00%89Weak
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation1/6 (16.67%)33.33%26.00%71Strong
Exemption from Duties0/90.00%30.00%133Weak
Temporary Admission0/110.00%28.00%126Weak
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration3/6 (50.00%)65.00%32.00%6Strong
Judicial cooperation0/50.00%36.00%119Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction0/40.00%14.00%29Weak
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Flora and fauna6/10 (60.00%)65.22%68.00%91Weak
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea0/260.00%46.00%182Weak
Protected geographical areas 0/10.00%27.00%54Weak
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees2/3 (66.67%)54.55%20.00%5Strong
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Cultural Property2/4 (50.00%)50.00%54.00%61Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime0/20.00%80.00%183Weak
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights7/7 (100.00%)100.00%96.00%1Weak
Labour Standards7/8 (87.50%)87.50%86.00%134Weak
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution0/10.00%39.00%77Weak
International Trade Law 5/10 (50.00%)50.00%73.00%163Weak
Trade support institutions1/6 (16.67%)16.67%51.00%146Weak
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Copyright1/3 (33.33%)45.45%65.00%112Weak
Industrial designs0/20.00%31.00%82Weak
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights0/30.00%46.00%120Weak
Patents1/5 (20.00%)23.81%57.00%153Weak
Trademarks2/6 (33.33%)36.36%33.00%68Average
Varieties of plants0/10.00%37.00%73Weak
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes0/20.00%39.00%152Weak
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport1/7 (14.29%)14.29%59.00%168Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 4/9 (44.44%)56.00%74.00%151Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 0/130.00%66.00%167Weak
Maritime transport0/120.00%27.00%180Weak
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport0/30.00%22.00%50Weak
Road transport0/40.00%31.00%86Weak
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements0/20.00%18.00%45Weak
WTO Agreements0/10.00%81.00%159Weak
Strengths and Weakness
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsSale of Goods
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsMarine Resources
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
WTOWTO Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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