Bangladesh

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Bangladesh (; Bengali: বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh [ˈbaŋladeʃ] (listen), lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh), is a country in South Asia. While it is the 92nd-largest country, spanning 147,570 square kilometres (56,980 sq mi), it is the world's 8th-most populous country with a population nearing 163 million, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north and the east and Myanmar to the east, whereas the Bay of Bengal lies to its south. Dhaka, its capital and largest city, is also the economic, political and the cultural hub of the country. Chittagong, the largest sea port, is the second largest city. The country's geography is dominated by the Ganges delta which empties into the Bay of Bengal the combined waters of several river systems, including those of the Brahmaputra and the Ganges. As a result, the country is criss-crossed by numerous rivers and inland water ways. Highlands with evergreen forests cover the landscape in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country. The country also features the longest natural sea beach and most of the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plants and wildlife, including the endangered Bengal tiger, the national animal.
Bangladesh forms the largest and eastern part of the Bengal region. According to the ancient Indian epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, the Vanga Kingdom, one of the namesakes of the Bengal region, was known as an ally of the legendary Ayodhya and was notable for its strong navy. In the ancient and classical period of the Indian subcontinent, the territory of Bangladesh was home to many principalities, including the Pundra, the Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata and Harikela. It was also a Mauryan province under the reign of Ashoka. The principalities were notable for their overseas trade, their contacts with the Roman world, the export of fine muslin and silk to the Middle East, and spreading of philosophy and art to Southeast Asia. The Pala Empire, the Chandra dynasty and the Sena dynasty were the last pre-Islamic Bengali middle kingdoms. Islam was introduced during the Pala Empire, through trade with the Abbasid Caliphate, but following the early conquest of Bakhtiyar Khalji and the subsequent establishment of the Delhi Sultanate and preaching of Shah Jalal in East Bengal, it fully spread across the entire region. Later, it was absorbed into the Mughal Empire in 1576, although part of the region was overrun by the Suri Empire. Following the decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 1700s, Bengal became a semi-independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal, ultimately led by Siraj ud-Daulah. It was later conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The borders of modern Bangladesh were established with the separation of Bengal and India in August 1947, when the region became East Pakistan as a part of the newly formed State of Pakistan following the Boundary of the Partition of India. Later the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement led to the Liberation War and eventually resulted in the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent sovereign in 1971.
Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population of Bangladesh. The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's fourth largest Muslim-majority country. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims. A middle power, Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional republic in the Westminster tradition. The country is divided into eight administrative divisions and sixty-four districts. It is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is listed among the Next Eleven countries. It has one of the fastest real GDP growth rates in the world. Its gross domestic product ranks 39th largest in the world in terms of market exchange rates and 29th in purchasing power parity. Its per capita income ranks 143th and 136th in two measures. While in the recent years Bangladesh has registered notable success in using Microcredit as a tool for poverty alleviation, women empowerment, generation of income through export of RMG, population control, reducing child mortality and combating natural disasters; the country continues to face the challenges of Rohingya refugee, terrorism, corruption, and erratic climate change.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 97 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 36.10%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 40.26%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 113 / 194
Least developed countries rank: 11 / 48
Least developed countries Avg. Ratifications: 79 / 282
Southern Asia rank: 5 / 9
Southern Asia Avg. Ratifications: 98 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce1/3 (33.33%)33.33%18.00%33Strong
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement1/4 (25.00%)21.43%3.00%1Strong
Sale of Goods0/50.00%25.00%89Weak
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total211.59%9.00%72Strong
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation1/6 (16.67%)33.33%26.00%71Strong
Exemption from Duties0/90.00%30.00%133Weak
Temporary Admission0/110.00%28.00%126Weak
Transit0/40.00%28.00%98Weak
Total310.87%31.00%135Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration4/6 (66.67%)60.00%32.00%11Strong
Judicial cooperation0/50.00%36.00%119Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction0/40.00%14.00%29Weak
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
Total424.00%29.00%88Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air5/5 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Chemicals0/10.00%78.00%152Weak
Energy0/20.00%25.00%50Weak
Flora and fauna6/10 (60.00%)65.22%68.00%91Weak
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea8/26 (30.77%)41.30%46.00%118Weak
Protected geographical areas 0/10.00%27.00%54Weak
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total2357.81%61.00%118Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees2/3 (66.67%)54.55%20.00%5Strong
Total214.63%12.00%52Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption2/4 (50.00%)66.67%50.00%34Strong
Cultural Property2/4 (50.00%)50.00%54.00%61Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime1/2 (50.00%)62.50%80.00%112Weak
Total869.23%68.00%86Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights7/7 (100.00%)100.00%96.00%1Weak
Labour Standards8/8 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Total15100.00%91.00%1Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution1/1 (100.00%)100.00%39.00%1Strong
International Trade Law 6/10 (60.00%)60.00%73.00%126Weak
Trade support institutions4/6 (66.67%)66.67%51.00%56Strong
Total1164.71%63.00%79Weak
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting0/10.00%47.00%93Weak
Copyright2/3 (66.67%)54.55%65.00%94Weak
Industrial designs0/20.00%31.00%82Weak
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights0/30.00%46.00%120Weak
Origin0/30.00%14.00%51Weak
Patents1/5 (20.00%)23.81%57.00%153Weak
Trademarks0/60.00%33.00%124Weak
Varieties of plants0/10.00%37.00%73Weak
Total311.58%42.00%162Weak
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total266.67%57.00%2Strong
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber0/10.00%31.00%61Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total138.46%53.00%85Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport3/7 (42.86%)52.38%59.00%110Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 6/9 (66.67%)88.00%74.00%37Strong
Maritime shipping and load lines 9/13 (69.23%)82.86%66.00%73Strong
Maritime transport2/12 (16.67%)8.33%27.00%153Weak
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport0/30.00%22.00%50Weak
Road transport0/40.00%31.00%86Weak
Space1/4 (25.00%)50.00%40.00%76Strong
Telecommunications1/2 (50.00%)83.33%47.00%26Strong
Total2248.65%50.00%106Weak
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General0/40.00%30.00%113Weak
Total00.00%30.00%113Weak
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements0/20.00%18.00%45Weak
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total145.45%47.00%45Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsProcurement
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsSale of Goods
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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