Austria

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is a federation of nine states, one of which is the capital Vienna, the largest city and state by population. The country is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. It occupies a landlocked area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) and has a population of 9 million people.
Austria emerged from the remnants of the Eastern and Hungarian March at the end of the first millennium. Originally a margraviate of Bavaria, it later developed into a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire in 1156, and then an archduchy in 1453. As of the 16th century, Vienna began serving as the administrative imperial capital and Austria thus became the heartland of the House of Habsburg. Following the Empire's dissolution in 1806, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the dominant member of the German Confederation. The Austrian Empire's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 lead to the end of the Confederation and paved the way for the establishment of Austria-Hungary a year later.
Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, Emperor Franz Joseph declared war on Serbia, which ultimately escalated into World War I. The Empire's defeat and subsequent collapse led to the proclamation of the Republic of German-Austria in 1918 and later the First Austrian Republic in 1919. During the interwar period, anti-parliamentarian sentiments culminated in the formation of an Austrofascist dictatorship under Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934. A year before the outbreak of World War II, Austria was annexed into Nazi Germany by Adolf Hitler, and it became a sub-national division. Following its liberation in 1945 and an extended period of Allied occupation, the country regained its sovereignty and declared its perpetual neutrality in 1955.
Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a popularly elected president as head of state and a chancellor as head of government and chief executive. Major urban areas include Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently listed as one of the richest countries in the world by GDP per capita, one of the countries with the highest standard of living, and was ranked 18th in the world for its Human Development Index in 2020.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and of the European Union since 1995. It plays host to the OSCE and OPEC and is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. It also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 164 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 63.17%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 67.59%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 17 / 194
Developed country rank: 16 / 30
Developed country Avg. Ratifications: 159 / 282
Europe Union rank: 15 / 28
Europe Union Avg. Ratifications: 180 / 282
Western Europe rank: 7 / 10
Western Europe Avg. Ratifications: 169 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce0/30.00%18.00%70Weak
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement0/40.00%3.00%31Weak
Sale of Goods1/5 (20.00%)45.45%25.00%29Strong
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total17.25%9.00%94Weak
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation2/6 (33.33%)40.00%26.00%48Strong
Exemption from Duties7/9 (77.78%)85.19%30.00%4Strong
Temporary Admission10/11 (90.91%)100.00%28.00%1Strong
Transit2/4 (50.00%)72.73%28.00%17Strong
Total2382.61%31.00%2Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration4/6 (66.67%)60.00%32.00%11Strong
Judicial cooperation2/5 (40.00%)31.58%36.00%71Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction1/4 (25.00%)100.00%14.00%1Strong
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 1/1 (100.00%)100.00%11.00%1Strong
Total852.00%29.00%38Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy2/2 (100.00%)100.00%25.00%1Strong
Flora and fauna8/10 (80.00%)86.96%68.00%23Strong
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea7/26 (26.92%)35.87%46.00%130Weak
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%)100.00%27.00%1Strong
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total2763.02%61.00%94Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes3/4 (75.00%)50.00%8.00%1Strong
Cheques3/3 (100.00%)100.00%13.00%1Strong
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees0/30.00%20.00%75Weak
Total624.39%12.00%32Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption3/4 (75.00%)75.00%50.00%6Strong
Cultural Property2/4 (50.00%)50.00%54.00%61Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime1/2 (50.00%)62.50%80.00%112Weak
Total971.15%68.00%80Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights7/7 (100.00%)100.00%96.00%1Weak
Labour Standards8/8 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Total15100.00%91.00%1Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution1/1 (100.00%)100.00%39.00%1Strong
International Trade Law 10/10 (100.00%)100.00%73.00%1Strong
Trade support institutions5/6 (83.33%)83.33%51.00%29Strong
Total1694.12%63.00%22Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting1/1 (100.00%)100.00%47.00%1Strong
Copyright3/3 (100.00%)100.00%65.00%1Strong
Industrial designs1/2 (50.00%)37.50%31.00%64Strong
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights3/3 (100.00%)100.00%46.00%1Strong
Origin0/30.00%14.00%51Weak
Patents4/5 (80.00%)85.71%57.00%30Strong
Trademarks4/6 (66.67%)54.55%33.00%52Strong
Varieties of plants1/1 (100.00%)100.00%37.00%1Strong
Total1770.53%42.00%46Strong
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total266.67%57.00%2Strong
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber1/1 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total276.92%53.00%23Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport4/7 (57.14%)76.19%59.00%54Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 5/9 (55.56%)76.00%74.00%80Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 6/13 (46.15%)68.57%66.00%120Weak
Maritime transport6/12 (50.00%)41.67%27.00%30Strong
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport3/3 (100.00%)100.00%22.00%1Strong
Road transport4/4 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
Space4/4 (100.00%)100.00%40.00%1Strong
Telecommunications1/2 (50.00%)16.67%47.00%102Weak
Total3370.95%50.00%32Strong
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General2/4 (50.00%)66.67%30.00%11Strong
Total266.67%30.00%11Strong
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements2/2 (100.00%)100.00%18.00%1Strong
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total3100.00%47.00%1Strong
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
ContractsSale of Goods
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Good Governance Corruption
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsProcurement
ContractsTravel contracts
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyOrigin
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
Instruments ratifications

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