- Type: Convention
- Date of signature: 01/12/1959
- Place of signature: Washington D.C., USA
- Depositary: Government of the United States
- Date of entry into force: 23/06/1961
What is it about?
This instrument implements a regime of internationalisation of the Antarctic. The treaty holds all territorial claims in abeyance. It also prohibits military activity, nuclear explosions and the disposal of nuclear waste and promotes scientific research and the exchange of data among contracting states. The Treaty applies to the area south of 60° South Latitude, including all ice shelves and islands. A Protocol on Environmental Protection of the Antarctic Treaty (Madrid, 4 October 1991) supplements the present instrument by absolutely prohibiting any activity relating to mineral resources, other than scientific research for a period of 50 years.
Why is it relevant?
This treaty guarantees the preservation of the Antarctic by preventing the territory of becoming a matter for international disputes. Though it reserves a privileged place for the original Parties (Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, Russia, United Kingdom and the United States all have establishes bases) it permits all State parties to have access to scientific research on the continent.
- Agreement for the Implementation of the Law of the Sea Convention relating to the Management and Conservation of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (New York, 4 August 1995)
- Protocol on Environmental Protection of the Antarctic Treaty (Madrid, 4 October 1991)
- Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (Canberra, 20 May 1980)
- International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (Rio de Janeiro, 14 May 1966)