Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
- Type: Convention
- Date of signature: 22/03/1985
- Place of signature: Vienna, Austria
- Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations
- Date of entry into force: 22/09/1988
What is it about?
State parties to this Convention agree to take appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting from human activities that modify the ozone layer. States agree to co-operation by means of systematic observations, research, and information exchange to better understand the effects on human health and the environment from the modification of the ozone layer. They as well agree to adopt appropriate legislative or administrative measures to control, limit, reduce or prevent activities causing damage to the ozone. They also consent to co-operate in the formulation of agreed measures procedures and standards, as well as to co-operate in harmonizing their policies. The Montreal Protocol was adopted on 16 September 1987 (184 State Parties as of 2003). The Montreal Protocol stipulates that the production and consumption of compounds that deplete ozone in the stratosphere such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform, must have been phased out by the year 2000. Other harmful chemicals are presently being phased out. State parties are not allowed to engage in international trade with such dangerous substances. Developing countries benefit from a ten-year grace period. A system of import and export licences is created by the Protocol, as well as stiff penalties for those State which do not comply with the agreement. An international fund helps developing countries to introduce new and more environmentally friendly technologies and chemicals.
Why is it relevant?
Additionally to health and environmental protection, the 1985 Convention and the 1987 Protocol relate to international trade in requiring States to close their borders to substances suspected of harming the ozone layer and to devices containing such substances.
- Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal, 16 September 1987) 1. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (London, 29 June 1990) 2. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Copenhagen, 25 November 1992) 3. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Adopted by the 9th Meeting of the Parties (Montreal, 17 September 1997) 4. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Peking, 03 December 1999)
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (New York, 9 May 1992) 1.Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto, 11 December 1997)
- Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, 13 November 1979) 1.Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) (Geneva, 28 September 1984) 2.Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 per cent (Helsinki, 08 July 1985) 3.Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Sofia, 31 October 1988) 4.Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Geneva, 18 November 1991) 5.Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions (Oslo, 14 June 1994) 6.Protocol on Heavy Metals (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 7.Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 8.Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone (Göteborg, 30 November 1999)