United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
- Type: Convention
- Date of signature: 09/05/1992
- Place of signature: New York, USA
- Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations
- Date of entry into force: 21/03/1999
What is it about?
This instrument aims to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a level that limits interference with the climate system. It also attempts to achieve such stabilization within a sufficient time frame to 1) allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, 2) ensure that food production is not threatened and 3) enable economic development to succeed in a sustainable manner. In this way the effects of global warming can be limited. State parties to the Convention agree to commit themselves to develop and publish national inventories of harmful emission by national sources. They as well commit themselves to formulate national and regional plans to mitigate climate change, as well as to promote and cooperate in the development and diffusion of technologies that reduce emissions. Developing countries may benefit from assistance from developed countries. Certain countries directly exposed to global warming also benefit from special assistance. The Kyoto Protocol, adopted 11 December 1997, supplements the Convention of 1992. It establishes for developed countries and emerging market economy countries a series of standards and requirements.
Why is it relevant?
In addition to health and environmental concerns, the 1992 Convention and the 1997 Kyoto Protocol prevent States from imposing discriminatory or unjustified international trade measures.
Developing countries, even those that emit greenhouses gases, are exempt from the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. A Conference of Parties ensures the application of the Convention and its Protocols.
- Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto, 11 December 1997)
- Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna, 22 March 1985) 1. Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal, 16 September 1987) 1.1. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (London, 29 June 1990) 1.2. Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Copenhagen, 25 November 1992) 1.3 Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Adopted by the 9th Meeting of the Parties (Montreal, 17 September 1997) 1.4 Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Peking, 03 December 1999)
- Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, 13 November 1979) 1. Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) (Geneva, 28 September 1984) 2. Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 per cent (Helsinki, 08 July 1985) 3. Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Sofia, 31 October 1988) 4. Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Geneva, 18 November 1991) 5. Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions (Oslo, 14 June 1994) 6. Protocol on Heavy Metals (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 7. Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 8. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone (Göteborg, 30 November 1999)