Protocol to the 1985 Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
- Type: Convention
- Date of signature: 16/09/1987
- Place of signature: Montreal, Canada
- Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations
- Date of entry into force: 01/01/1989
What is it about?
The Montreal Protocol establishes binding regulations reflecting the principles set forth by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna, 22 March 1985). It regulates the production and usage of substances that deplete the ozone layer and implements a reduction program designed to gradually reduce usage to zero. The Montreal Protocol has been amended five times since its adoption (London 1990, Copenhagen 1992, Vienna 1995, Montreal 1997 and Peking 1999). These amendments enlarge the list of chemical products covered and the extent of the regulation of these products. State Parties to the Protocol are not bound by amendments unless they ratify them. The Protocol additionally prohibits the import of regulated products and substances produced in countries that are not a Party to the present Protocol. A procedure is established to suspend or exclude State Parties that do not respect the obligations resulting out of membership to the Protocol.
Why is it relevant?
In addition to health and environmental protection, the 1985 Convention and the 1987 Protocol have an international trade aspect requiring States to close their borders to substances suspected of harming the ozone layer and devices containing such substances. Largely ratified by the international community, this instrument reconciles environmental necessities with needs of developing countries. Developing countries benefit from a grace period for the phase out of certain chemicals. They may additionally draw from an International Fund designed to help their production sector adapt to the use and production of less polluting goods. They also benefit from the transfer of technology from developed countries related to the production of non-polluting goods.
A state must be a Party to the Vienna Convention of 1985 in order to ratify the 1987 Montreal Protocol.
- Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna, 22 March 1985)
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (New York, 9 May 1992)
- 1.Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto, 11 December 1997)
- Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, 13 November 1979) 1. Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) (Geneva, 28 September 1984) 2. Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 per cent (Helsinki, 08 July 1985) 3. Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Sofia, 31 October 1988) 4. Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (Geneva, 18 November 1991) 5. Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions (Oslo, 14 June 1994) 6. Protocol on Heavy Metals (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 7. Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus, 24 June 1998) 8. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone (Göteborg, 30 November 1999)