Yemen

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Yemen (; Arabic: اليَمَن‎‎ al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhūrīyah al-Yamanīyah), is an Arab country in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen is the second-largest country in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 km2 (203,850 sq mi). The coastline stretches for about 2,000 km (1,200 mi). It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea to the south, and Oman to the east-northeast. Although Yemen's constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sana'a, the city has been under rebel control since February 2015. Because of this, Yemen's capital has been temporarily relocated to the port city of Aden, on the southern coast. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands; the largest of these is Socotra.
Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans (biblical Sheba), a trading state that flourished for over a thousand years and also included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 275 AD, the region came under the rule of the later Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Christianity arrived in the fourth century, whereas Judaism and local paganism were already established. Islam spread quickly in the seventh century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the early Islamic conquests. Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous. The country was divided between the Ottoman and British empires in the early twentieth century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in North Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967 when it became an independent state and later, a Marxist state. The two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990.
Yemen is a developing country, and the poorest country in the Middle East. Under the rule of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, Yemen was described by critics as a kleptocracy. According to the 2009 international corruption Perception Index by Transparency International, Yemen ranked 164 out of 182 countries surveyed. In the absence of strong state institutions, elite politics in Yemen constituted a de facto form of collaborative governance, where competing tribal, regional, religious, and political interests agreed to hold themselves in check through tacit acceptance of the balance it produced. The informal political settlement was held together by a power-sharing deal between three men: president Ali Abdullah Saleh, who controlled the state; Major General Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, who controlled the largest share of the Republic of Yemen Armed Forces; and Abdullah ibn Husayn al-Ahmar, figurehead of the Islamist Islah party and Saudi Arabia's chosen broker of transnational patronage payments to various political players, including tribal sheikhs. The Saudi payments have been intended to facilitate the tribes' autonomy from the Yemeni government and to give the Saudi government a mechanism with which to weigh in on Yemen's political decision-making.
It is a member of the United Nations, Arab League, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation, G-77, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab Satellite Communications Organization, Arab Monetary Fund and the World Federation of Trade Unions.
From 2011, Yemen has been in a state of political crisis starting with street protests against poverty, unemployment, corruption, and president Saleh's plan to amend Yemen's constitution and eliminate the presidential term limit, in effect making him president for life. President Saleh stepped down and the powers of the presidency were transferred to Vice President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi, who was formally elected president on 21 February 2012 in a one-man election. The transitional process was part of the UN-backed Gulf Cooperation Council Initiative known as National Dialogue Conference. In September 2014, the Houthis took over Sana'a with the help of the ousted president Ali Abdullah Saleh, later declaring themselves in control of the country after a coup d'état. This resulted in a new civil war and a Saudi Arabian-led military intervention aimed at preventing the collapse of Hadi's fledgling government.
The war has blocked food imports, leading to a famine that is affecting 17 million people. The lack of safe drinking water, caused by depleted aquifers and the destruction of the country's water infrastructure, has also caused the world's worst outbreak of cholera, with the number of suspected cases exceeding 700,000. Over 2,100 people have died since the outbreak began to spread rapidly at the end of April 2017.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 78 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 26.66%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 29.93%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 172 / 194
Least developed countries rank: 35 / 48
Least developed countries Avg. Ratifications: 79 / 282
Western Asia rank: 17 / 18
Western Asia Avg. Ratifications: 118 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 0/3 0.00% 18.00% 70 Weak
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 0/4 0.00% 3.00% 31 Weak
Sale of Goods 0/5 0.00% 25.00% 89 Weak
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 9.00% 145 Weak
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 1/6 (16.67%) 33.33% 26.00% 71 Strong
Exemption from Duties 0/9 0.00% 30.00% 133 Weak
Temporary Admission 0/11 0.00% 28.00% 126 Weak
Transit 0/4 0.00% 28.00% 98 Weak
Total 3 10.87% 31.00% 135 Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 0/6 0.00% 32.00% 157 Weak
Judicial cooperation 0/5 0.00% 36.00% 119 Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 0/4 0.00% 14.00% 29 Weak
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 0/1 0.00% 11.00% 22 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 29.00% 171 Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 0/2 0.00% 25.00% 50 Weak
Flora and fauna 6/10 (60.00%) 65.22% 68.00% 91 Weak
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 0/1 0.00% 95.00% 185 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 11/26 (42.31%) 38.04% 46.00% 126 Weak
Protected geographical areas 0/1 0.00% 27.00% 54 Weak
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 25 53.65% 61.00% 129 Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 0/4 0.00% 8.00% 43 Weak
Cheques 0/3 0.00% 13.00% 36 Weak
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 0/3 0.00% 20.00% 75 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 12.00% 117 Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 1/4 (25.00%) 41.67% 50.00% 92 Weak
Cultural Property 1/4 (25.00%) 31.25% 54.00% 142 Weak
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 1/2 (50.00%) 62.50% 80.00% 112 Weak
Total 6 57.69% 68.00% 155 Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 5/7 (71.43%) 71.43% 96.00% 191 Weak
Labour Standards 1/8 (12.50%) 12.50% 86.00% 178 Weak
Total 6 40.00% 91.00% 189 Weak
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 0/1 0.00% 39.00% 77 Weak
International Trade Law 6/10 (60.00%) 60.00% 73.00% 126 Weak
Trade support institutions 2/6 (33.33%) 33.33% 51.00% 114 Weak
Total 8 47.06% 63.00% 126 Weak
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 0/1 0.00% 47.00% 93 Weak
Copyright 1/3 (33.33%) 45.45% 65.00% 112 Weak
Industrial designs 0/2 0.00% 31.00% 82 Weak
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 0/3 0.00% 46.00% 120 Weak
Origin 0/3 0.00% 14.00% 51 Weak
Patents 1/5 (20.00%) 23.81% 57.00% 153 Weak
Trademarks 0/6 0.00% 33.00% 124 Weak
Varieties of plants 0/1 0.00% 37.00% 73 Weak
Total 2 10.53% 42.00% 164 Weak
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 0/1 0.00% 24.00% 48 Weak
Timber 0/1 0.00% 31.00% 61 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 1 38.46% 53.00% 85 Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 3/7 (42.86%) 52.38% 59.00% 110 Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 5/9 (55.56%) 60.00% 74.00% 148 Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 10/13 (76.92%) 91.43% 66.00% 38 Strong
Maritime transport 4/12 (33.33%) 25.00% 27.00% 94 Weak
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 0/3 0.00% 22.00% 50 Weak
Road transport 0/4 0.00% 31.00% 86 Weak
Space 1/4 (25.00%) 50.00% 40.00% 76 Strong
Telecommunications 1/2 (50.00%) 83.33% 47.00% 26 Strong
Total 24 48.65% 50.00% 106 Weak
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 0/4 0.00% 30.00% 113 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 30.00% 113 Weak
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 0/2 0.00% 18.00% 45 Weak
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 1 45.45% 47.00% 45 Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Foodstuff
Investments Investment disputes
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Space
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Sale of Goods
Contracts Travel contracts
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Origin
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Marine Resources
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Treaties law General
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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