Yemen

Wikipedia Country Information

Yemen (; Arabic: اليَمَن‎‎ al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhūrīyah al-Yamanīyah), is an Arab country in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen is the second-largest country in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 km2 (203,850 sq mi). The coastline stretches for about 2,000 km (1,200 mi). It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea to the south, and Oman to the east-northeast. Although Yemen's constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sana'a, the city has been under rebel control since February 2015. Because of this, Yemen's capital has been temporarily relocated to the port city of Aden, on the southern coast. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands; the largest of these is Socotra.
Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans (biblical Sheba), a trading state that flourished for over a thousand years and also included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 275 AD, the region came under the rule of the later Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Christianity arrived in the fourth century, whereas Judaism and local paganism were already established. Islam spread quickly in the seventh century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the early Islamic conquests. Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous. The country was divided between the Ottoman and British empires in the early twentieth century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in North Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967 when it became an independent state and later, a Marxist state. The two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990.
Yemen is a developing country, and the poorest country in the Middle East. Under the rule of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, Yemen was described as a kleptocracy. According to the 2009 international corruption Perception Index by Transparency International, Yemen ranked 164 out of 182 countries surveyed. In the absence of strong state institutions, elite politics in Yemen constituted a de facto form of collaborative governance, where competing tribal, regional, religious, and political interests agreed to hold themselves in check through tacit acceptance of the balance it produced. The informal political settlement was held together by a power-sharing deal between three men: president Ali Abdullah Saleh, who controlled the state; Major General Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, who controlled the largest share of the Republic of Yemen Armed Forces; and Abdullah ibn Husayn al-Ahmar, figurehead of the Islamist Islah party and Saudi Arabia's chosen broker of transnational patronage payments to various political players, including tribal sheikhs. The Saudi payments have been intended to facilitate the tribes' autonomy from the Yemeni government and to give the Saudi government a mechanism with which to weigh in on Yemen's political decision-making.
Yemen has been in a state of political crisis since 2011, starting with street protests against poverty, unemployment, corruption, and president Saleh's plan to amend Yemen's constitution and eliminate the presidential term limit, in effect making him president for life. President Saleh stepped down and the powers of the presidency were transferred to Vice President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi, who was formally elected president on 21 February 2012 in a one-man election. The transitional process was part of the UN-backed Gulf Cooperation Council Initiative known as National Dialogue Conference. In September 2014, the Houthis took over Sana'a with the help of the ousted president Ali Abdullah Saleh, later declaring themselves in control of the country after a coup d'état. This resulted in a new civil war and a Saudi Arabian-led military intervention aimed at preventing the collapse of Hadi's fledgling government.
The war has blocked food imports, leading to a famine that is affecting 17 million people. The lack of clean water, caused by depleted aquifers and the destruction of the country's water infrastructure, has also caused the world's worst outbreak of cholera, with the number of suspected cases exceeding 200,000.


Instruments ratified: 78 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 26.66%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 29.93%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 172 / 194
Least developed countries rank: 35 / 48
Least developed countries Avg. Ratifications: 79 / 282
Western Asia rank: 17 / 18
Western Asia Avg. Ratifications: 118 / 282
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce0/30.00%18.00%70Weak
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement0/40.00%3.00%31Weak
Sale of Goods0/50.00%25.00%89Weak
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total00.00%9.00%145Weak
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation1/6 (16.67%)33.33%26.00%71Strong
Exemption from Duties0/90.00%30.00%133Weak
Temporary Admission0/110.00%28.00%126Weak
Transit0/40.00%28.00%98Weak
Total310.87%31.00%135Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration0/60.00%32.00%157Weak
Judicial cooperation0/50.00%36.00%119Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction0/40.00%14.00%29Weak
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
Total00.00%29.00%171Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy0/20.00%25.00%50Weak
Flora and fauna6/10 (60.00%)65.22%68.00%91Weak
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General0/10.00%95.00%185Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea11/26 (42.31%)38.04%46.00%126Weak
Protected geographical areas 0/10.00%27.00%54Weak
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total2553.65%61.00%129Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees0/30.00%20.00%75Weak
Total00.00%12.00%117Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption1/4 (25.00%)41.67%50.00%92Weak
Cultural Property1/4 (25.00%)31.25%54.00%142Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime1/2 (50.00%)62.50%80.00%112Weak
Total657.69%68.00%155Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights5/7 (71.43%)71.43%96.00%191Weak
Labour Standards1/8 (12.50%)12.50%86.00%178Weak
Total640.00%91.00%189Weak
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution0/10.00%39.00%77Weak
International Trade Law 6/10 (60.00%)60.00%73.00%126Weak
Trade support institutions2/6 (33.33%)33.33%51.00%114Weak
Total847.06%63.00%126Weak
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting0/10.00%47.00%93Weak
Copyright1/3 (33.33%)45.45%65.00%112Weak
Industrial designs0/20.00%31.00%82Weak
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights0/30.00%46.00%120Weak
Origin0/30.00%14.00%51Weak
Patents1/5 (20.00%)23.81%57.00%153Weak
Trademarks0/60.00%33.00%124Weak
Varieties of plants0/10.00%37.00%73Weak
Total210.53%42.00%164Weak
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total266.67%57.00%2Strong
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber0/10.00%31.00%61Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total138.46%53.00%85Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport3/7 (42.86%)52.38%59.00%110Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 5/9 (55.56%)60.00%74.00%148Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 10/13 (76.92%)91.43%66.00%38Strong
Maritime transport4/12 (33.33%)25.00%27.00%94Weak
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport0/30.00%22.00%50Weak
Road transport0/40.00%31.00%86Weak
Space1/4 (25.00%)50.00%40.00%76Strong
Telecommunications1/2 (50.00%)83.33%47.00%26Strong
Total2448.65%50.00%106Weak
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General0/40.00%30.00%113Weak
Total00.00%30.00%113Weak
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements0/20.00%18.00%45Weak
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total145.45%47.00%45Weak
 
Strong
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsFoodstuff
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsProcurement
ContractsSale of Goods
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOPlurilateral Agreements

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