Turkey

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Turkey (; Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ; pronounced [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti]), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; Iraq and Syria to the south. The country is encircled by seas on three sides with the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, which together form the Turkish Straits, divide Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately four fifths of the country's citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks. Other ethnic groups include legally recognised Armenians, Greeks, and Jews; and unrecognised Kurd, Arab, Circassian, Albanian, Bosniak and Georgian minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately one fifth of the population.
The area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic age by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians and Armenians. After Alexander the Great conquered these lands, the area was Hellenized, a process which continued under the Roman Empire and its transition into the Byzantine Empire. The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, starting the process of Turkification, which was accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish beyliks. From the end of the 13th century the Ottomans started uniting Anatolia and then creating an empire encompassing much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa, becoming a world power during the early modern period. The empire reached the peak of its land mass in the 16th century, during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. It remained powerful and influential for two more centuries, until important setbacks in the 17th and 18th century forced it to cede strategic territories in Europe, signalling the loss of its former military strength and wealth. After the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état which effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas, the Ottoman Empire decided to join the Central Powers during World War I which were ultimately defeated by the Allied Powers. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek citizens. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. The Turkish War of Independence (1919–1922), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against the occupying Allies, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president. Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought, philosophy, and customs into the new form of Turkish government.
Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, and a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005. Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has reversed many of the country's earlier reforms which had been in place since the founding of the modern republic of Turkey, such as Freedom of the Press, and a Legislative System of Checks and Balances. A set of standards for secularism in government, as first enacted by Atatürk have also diminished in favour of conservative religionist governance, to the grievance of much of the Turkish public.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 155 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 49.99%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 55.00%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 49 / 194
Developing country rank: 7 / 87
Developing country Avg. Ratifications: 109 / 282
Western Asia rank: 2 / 18
Western Asia Avg. Ratifications: 118 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 0/3 0.00% 18.00% 70 Weak
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 0/4 0.00% 3.00% 31 Weak
Sale of Goods 1/5 (20.00%) 45.45% 25.00% 29 Strong
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 1 7.25% 9.00% 94 Weak
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 3/6 (50.00%) 60.00% 26.00% 4 Strong
Exemption from Duties 5/9 (55.56%) 55.56% 30.00% 44 Strong
Temporary Admission 9/11 (81.82%) 91.18% 28.00% 9 Strong
Transit 3/4 (75.00%) 100.00% 28.00% 1 Strong
Total 22 77.17% 31.00% 12 Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 2/6 (33.33%) 50.00% 32.00% 29 Strong
Judicial cooperation 4/5 (80.00%) 84.21% 36.00% 27 Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 0/4 0.00% 14.00% 29 Weak
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 0/1 0.00% 11.00% 22 Weak
Total 6 52.00% 29.00% 38 Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 0/1 0.00% 78.00% 152 Weak
Energy 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 25.00% 1 Strong
Flora and fauna 7/10 (70.00%) 71.74% 68.00% 72 Weak
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 15/26 (57.69%) 66.30% 46.00% 50 Strong
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 27.00% 1 Strong
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 33 71.35% 61.00% 53 Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 0/4 0.00% 8.00% 43 Weak
Cheques 0/3 0.00% 13.00% 36 Weak
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 2/3 (66.67%) 54.55% 20.00% 5 Strong
Total 2 14.63% 12.00% 52 Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 50.00% 1 Strong
Cultural Property 2/4 (50.00%) 50.00% 54.00% 61 Weak
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 80.00% 1 Strong
Total 11 82.69% 68.00% 30 Strong
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 6/7 (85.71%) 85.71% 96.00% 143 Weak
Labour Standards 1/8 (12.50%) 12.50% 86.00% 178 Weak
Total 7 46.67% 91.00% 178 Weak
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 39.00% 1 Strong
International Trade Law 9/10 (90.00%) 90.00% 73.00% 34 Strong
Trade support institutions 6/6 (100.00%) 100.00% 51.00% 1 Strong
Total 16 94.12% 63.00% 22 Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
Copyright 2/3 (66.67%) 90.91% 65.00% 48 Strong
Industrial designs 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 2/3 (66.67%) 76.92% 46.00% 61 Strong
Origin 1/3 (33.33%) 33.33% 14.00% 24 Strong
Patents 4/5 (80.00%) 85.71% 57.00% 30 Strong
Trademarks 4/6 (66.67%) 63.64% 33.00% 44 Strong
Varieties of plants 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 37.00% 1 Strong
Total 17 76.84% 42.00% 35 Strong
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 24.00% 1 Strong
Timber 0/1 0.00% 31.00% 61 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 61.54% 53.00% 61 Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 5/7 (71.43%) 90.48% 59.00% 4 Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 6/9 (66.67%) 80.00% 74.00% 72 Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 8/13 (61.54%) 74.29% 66.00% 99 Strong
Maritime transport 5/12 (41.67%) 37.50% 27.00% 46 Strong
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 22.00% 1 Strong
Road transport 3/4 (75.00%) 72.22% 31.00% 46 Strong
Space 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 40.00% 1 Strong
Telecommunications 1/2 (50.00%) 83.33% 47.00% 26 Strong
Total 35 73.65% 50.00% 27 Strong
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 0/4 0.00% 30.00% 113 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 30.00% 113 Weak
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 0/2 0.00% 18.00% 45 Weak
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 1 45.45% 47.00% 45 Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Contracts Sale of Goods
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Organized crime
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Origin
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment disputes
Products Marine Resources
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Travel contracts
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Treaties law General
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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