Thailand

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Thailand ( TY-land), officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Even though constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy form of government was established in 1932, the most recent coup d'état in 2014 made Thailand currently a de facto military dictatorship.
Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia since the 11th century. The oldest known mention of their presence in the region by the exonym Siamese is in a 12th-century inscription at the Angkor Wat. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivalled each other. Before the end of the 15th century, Ayutthaya Kingdom was the new great power in the region. Europeans contact began with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya in 1511. During cosmopolitan Narai's reign (1656–88), Ayutthaya was very prosperous and Europeans recognized it as one of the greatest kingdoms in the region. However, Ayutthaya then gradually declined and was ultimately destroyed in 1767. Taksin quickly unified the fragmented territory and crowned king of short-lived Thonburi Kingdom. In his final years, he and his sons was executed by his companion Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of reigning Chakri dynasty and founder of Rattanakosin Kingdom in 1782.
The ensuing centuries saw colonial powers pressure on Siam, but remained the only South East Asian country not colonized by the West. The country was modernized and centralized during Chulalongkorn's reign (1868–1910). Siam joined the Allies in World War I. Bloodless Siamese revolution of 1932 changed the kingdom into constitutional monarchy. In the 1930s, the military dominated the politics and the country turned into a fascism. Thailand allied with Japan during Thailand in World War II but most Allied powers did not accept Thai declaration of war. Thailand allied with the United States and led anti-communist role in the region. Sarit's coup and premiership revived the monarchy's role in politics. Popular uprising in 1973 was a result of internal conflict Thailand and leads to a brief period of parliamentary democracy which ended in 1976. Thailand is still considered a "partial democracy" for many decades. Since the 2000s seen the country pitted in a political crisis between supporters and opponents of ex-Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, with two coups, most recently in 2014. Its current and 20th constitution was ratified on April 6, 2017, during military junta's watch.
Thailand is a founding member of ASEAN and a long-time allied of the United States. Thailand is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy which was heavily dependent on exports. Manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors of the economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Southeast Asia and the 20th largest by PPP.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 85 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 32.18%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 37.83%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 136 / 194
Developing country rank: 67 / 87
Developing country Avg. Ratifications: 109 / 282
South-East Asia rank: 7 / 11
South-East Asia Avg. Ratifications: 89 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce2/3 (66.67%)66.67%18.00%2Strong
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement0/40.00%3.00%31Weak
Sale of Goods0/50.00%25.00%89Weak
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total214.49%9.00%37Strong
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation1/6 (16.67%)33.33%26.00%71Strong
Exemption from Duties2/9 (22.22%)22.22%30.00%92Weak
Temporary Admission5/11 (45.45%)50.00%28.00%44Strong
Transit1/4 (25.00%)45.45%28.00%51Strong
Total1141.30%31.00%60Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration4/6 (66.67%)60.00%32.00%11Strong
Judicial cooperation0/50.00%36.00%119Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction0/40.00%14.00%29Weak
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
Total424.00%29.00%88Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air5/5 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy0/20.00%25.00%50Weak
Flora and fauna6/10 (60.00%)65.22%68.00%91Weak
Foodstuff1/2 (50.00%)37.50%79.00%136Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea3/26 (11.54%)16.30%46.00%153Weak
Protected geographical areas 0/10.00%27.00%54Weak
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total1845.83%61.00%151Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees0/30.00%20.00%75Weak
Total00.00%12.00%117Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption2/4 (50.00%)66.67%50.00%34Strong
Cultural Property1/4 (25.00%)31.25%54.00%142Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime1/2 (50.00%)62.50%80.00%112Weak
Total763.46%68.00%123Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights6/7 (85.71%)85.71%96.00%143Weak
Labour Standards3/8 (37.50%)37.50%86.00%172Weak
Total960.00%91.00%172Weak
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution1/1 (100.00%)100.00%39.00%1Strong
International Trade Law 7/10 (70.00%)70.00%73.00%84Weak
Trade support institutions4/6 (66.67%)66.67%51.00%56Strong
Total1270.59%63.00%69Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting0/10.00%47.00%93Weak
Copyright1/3 (33.33%)45.45%65.00%112Weak
Industrial designs0/20.00%31.00%82Weak
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights0/30.00%46.00%120Weak
Origin0/30.00%14.00%51Weak
Patents2/5 (40.00%)47.62%57.00%87Weak
Trademarks0/60.00%33.00%124Weak
Varieties of plants0/10.00%37.00%73Weak
Total315.79%42.00%148Weak
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes0/20.00%39.00%152Weak
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total133.33%57.00%148Weak
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber1/1 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total276.92%53.00%23Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport1/7 (14.29%)14.29%59.00%168Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 6/9 (66.67%)88.00%74.00%37Strong
Maritime shipping and load lines 6/13 (46.15%)68.57%66.00%120Weak
Maritime transport0/120.00%27.00%180Weak
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport0/30.00%22.00%50Weak
Road transport0/40.00%31.00%86Weak
Space1/4 (25.00%)50.00%40.00%76Strong
Telecommunications1/2 (50.00%)83.33%47.00%26Strong
Total1538.51%50.00%138Weak
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General0/40.00%30.00%113Weak
Total00.00%30.00%113Weak
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements0/20.00%18.00%45Weak
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total145.45%47.00%45Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
ContractsE-commerce
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsTemporary Admission
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsChemicals
Good Governance Corruption
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsProcurement
ContractsSale of Goods
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsExemption from Duties
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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