Sierra Leone

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Sierra Leone ( ( listen)), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea to the north-east, Liberia to the south-east and the Atlantic Ocean to the south-west. Sierra Leone has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savannah to rainforests. The country has a total area of 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi) and a population of 7,075,641 (based on the 2015 national census). It is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature / parliament.
Sierra Leone is made up of four administrative regions: the Northern Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and the Western Area, which are subdivided into fourteen districts[1]. Each district has its own directly elected local government, though with limited power, as most of the powers are held by the central government in Freetown. Freetown (population 1,050,301), located in the Western Area, is Sierra Leone's capital and largest city and its economic centre. Kenema, located 160 miles from Freetown, is Sierra Leone's second largest city. Other major cities in Sierra Leone with a population above 100,000 are Bo, Koidu Town, and Makeni.
Sierra Leone became independent from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on 27 April 1961, led by Sir Milton Margai, who became the country's first Prime Minister. The current constitution of Sierra Leone was adopted in 1991, though it has been amended several times since. Since independence to present, Sierra Leonean politics has been dominated by two major political parties; the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) and the All People's Congress (APC), though the Sierra Leone military had seized power through military coup six times in the 55 years since independence in 1961.
From 1991 to 2002, the Sierra Leone Civil War was fought and devastated the country. The proxy war left more than 50,000 people dead, much of the country's infrastructure destroyed and over two million Sierra Leoneans displaced as refugees in neighbouring countries. In January 2002, then-president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fulfilled his campaign promise by ending the civil war, with the help of the British Government, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the United Nations. Kabbah won reelection in the 2002 general election for his final term as president, with 70% of the vote. Kabbah's ruling Sierra Leone People's Party also won majority seats in the parliament. More recently, the 2014 Ebola outbreak overburdened the weak healthcare infrastructure, leading to more deaths from medical neglect than Ebola itself. It created a humanitarian crisis situation and heavily impacted economic growth. The country has an extremely low life expectancy relative to other countries, at 57.8 years.
About sixteen ethnic groups inhabit Sierra Leone, each with its own language and customs. The two largest and most influential are the Temne and the Mende people. The Temne are predominantly found in the north of the country, while the Mende are predominant in the southeast. Comprising a significant minority are the Krio people, who are descendants of freed African American and West Indian / slaves.
Although the English language is the official language spoken at schools and government administration, the Krio language, an English-based creole, is the most widely spoken language across Sierra Leone and is spoken by 97% of the country's population. The Krio language unites all the different ethnic groups in the country, especially in their trade and social interaction with each other.
Sierra Leone is a Muslim majority country, with the overall Muslim population at 78% of the population especially concentrated in the north as in most other West African countries, though there is an influential Christian minority of various denominations at about 21% of the population. Sierra Leone is regarded as one of the most religiously tolerant nations in the world. Muslims and Christians collaborate and interact with each other very peacefully. Religious violence is very rare in the country. The major Christian and Muslim holidays are officially public holidays in the country, including Christmas, Easter, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. In politics, the overwhelming majority of Sierra Leoneans vote for a candidate without regard to whether the candidate is a Muslim or a Christian. Sierra Leone has a large population of people with more secular lifestyles, both Christian and Muslim. This is particularly prevalent in the country's major cities and bigger towns, though the country overall is socially conservative.
Sierra Leone has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base. It is also among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, a major producer of gold and has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile. Sierra Leone is home to the third-largest natural harbour in the world. Despite exploitation of this natural wealth, 70% of its population live in poverty.
Sierra Leone is a member of many international organisations, including the United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Mano River Union, the British Commonwealth of Nations (formerly the British Empire), the African Development Bank and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).


Summary
Instruments ratified: 101 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 36.08%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 39.15%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 113 / 194
Least developed countries rank: 11 / 48
Least developed countries Avg. Ratifications: 79 / 282
Western Africa rank: 10 / 16
Western Africa Avg. Ratifications: 103 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce0/30.00%18.00%70Weak
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement0/40.00%3.00%31Weak
Sale of Goods0/50.00%25.00%89Weak
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total00.00%9.00%145Weak
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification1/3 (33.33%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation1/6 (16.67%)33.33%26.00%71Strong
Exemption from Duties5/9 (55.56%)55.56%30.00%44Strong
Temporary Admission3/11 (27.27%)32.35%28.00%66Strong
Transit0/40.00%28.00%98Weak
Total1039.13%31.00%68Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration0/60.00%32.00%157Weak
Judicial cooperation0/50.00%36.00%119Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction0/40.00%14.00%29Weak
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
Total00.00%29.00%171Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Chemicals0/10.00%78.00%152Weak
Energy0/20.00%25.00%50Weak
Flora and fauna6/10 (60.00%)60.87%68.00%146Weak
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea18/26 (69.23%)71.74%46.00%36Strong
Protected geographical areas 0/10.00%27.00%54Weak
Waste0/10.00%93.00%181Weak
Total3166.15%61.00%79Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees0/30.00%20.00%75Weak
Total00.00%12.00%117Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption2/4 (50.00%)66.67%50.00%34Strong
Cultural Property1/4 (25.00%)31.25%54.00%142Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime2/2 (100.00%)100.00%80.00%1Strong
Total869.23%68.00%86Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights6/7 (85.71%)85.71%96.00%143Weak
Labour Standards7/8 (87.50%)87.50%86.00%134Weak
Total1386.67%91.00%150Weak
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution0/10.00%39.00%77Weak
International Trade Law 7/10 (70.00%)70.00%73.00%84Weak
Trade support institutions1/6 (16.67%)16.67%51.00%146Weak
Total847.06%63.00%126Weak
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting0/10.00%47.00%93Weak
Copyright0/30.00%65.00%172Weak
Industrial designs0/20.00%31.00%82Weak
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights0/30.00%46.00%120Weak
Origin0/30.00%14.00%51Weak
Patents2/5 (40.00%)47.62%57.00%87Weak
Trademarks2/6 (33.33%)36.36%33.00%68Average
Varieties of plants0/10.00%37.00%73Weak
Total418.95%42.00%143Weak
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total266.67%57.00%2Strong
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources1/1 (100.00%)100.00%24.00%1Strong
Timber0/10.00%31.00%61Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total261.54%53.00%61Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport4/7 (57.14%)57.14%59.00%109Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 4/9 (44.44%)56.00%74.00%151Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 10/13 (76.92%)91.43%66.00%38Strong
Maritime transport3/12 (25.00%)37.50%27.00%46Strong
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport0/30.00%22.00%50Weak
Road transport0/40.00%31.00%86Weak
Space1/4 (25.00%)50.00%40.00%76Strong
Telecommunications0/20.00%47.00%114Weak
Total2247.30%50.00%111Weak
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General0/40.00%30.00%113Weak
Total00.00%30.00%113Weak
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements0/20.00%18.00%45Weak
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total145.45%47.00%45Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Organized crime
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
ProductsMarine Resources
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsProcurement
ContractsSale of Goods
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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