Sierra Leone

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Sierra Leone (), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea to the north-east, Liberia to the south-east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south-west. Sierra Leone has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savannah to rainforests. The country has a total area of 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi) and a population of 7,075,641 (based on 2015 national census). It is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature.
Sierra Leone is made up of five administrative regions: the Northern Province, Northwestern Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and the Western Area, which are subdivided into sixteen districts[1]. Each district has its own directly elected local government, though with limited power, as most of the powers are held by the central government in Freetown. Freetown (population 1,050,301), located in the Western Area, is Sierra Leone's capital, largest city and its economic centre. Bo (population 306,000) is Sierra Leone's second largest city and is located in the Southern province, about 160 miles from Freetown. Kenema (population 200,354) is Sierra Leone"s third largest city, and is located in the Eastern Province. Koidu Town (population 128,074) is Sierra Leone"s fourth largest city and is located in the diamond rich Kono District in the Eastern province. Makeni (population 126,059) is Sierra Leone's fifth largest of the country's five major cities, and is located in the Northern province.
Sierra Leone became independent from the United Kingdom on 27 April 1961 led by Sir Milton Margai. The current constitution of Sierra Leone was adopted in 1991, though it has been amended several times. Since independence to present, Sierra Leonean politics has been dominated by two major political parties; the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) and the All People's Congress (APC), though the Sierra Leone military had seized power through military coup six times since Independence in 1961; the last time was when the country was under ten months military junta rule from 1997 to 1999. The Military Junta was ousted from power by a coalition of West African Ecowas troops, lead by Nigeria, and power was returned back to the democratically elected president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah.
From 1991 to 2002, the Sierra Leone civil war was fought and devastated the country. The proxy war left more than 50,000 people dead, much of the country's infrastructure destroyed, and over two million Sierra Leoneans displaced as refugees in neighbouring countries. In January 2002, then Sierra Leone's president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, fulfilled his campaign promise by ending the civil war, with help of the British Government, ECOWAS and the United Nations. Kabbah won reelection for his final term as president, after the civil war, with 70℅ of the votes in the 2002 Sierra Leone presidential election. More recently, the 2014 Ebola outbreak overburdened the weak healthcare infrastructure, leading to more deaths from medical neglect than Ebola itself. It created a humanitarian crisis situation and heavily impacted economic growth. The country has an extremely low life expectancy relative to other countries, at 57.8 years.
About sixteen ethnic groups inhabit Sierra Leone, each with its own language and customs. The two largest and most influential are the Temne and the Mende people. The Temne are predominantly found in the north of the country, while the Mende are predominant in the southeast. Sierra Leone has a significant minority of the Krio people, who are descendants of freed African American and West Indian slaves.
Although English is the official language spoken at schools and government administration, the Krio language, an English-based creole, is the most widely spoken language across Sierra Leone and is spoken by 97% of the country's population. The Krio language unites all the different ethnic groups in the country, especially in their trade and social interaction with each other.
Sierra Leone is a Muslim majority country, with the overall Muslim population at 78% of the population, though there is an influential Christian minority at about 21℅ of the population. Sierra Leone is regarded as one of the most religiously tolerant nations in the world. Muslims and Christians collaborate and interact with each other very peacefully. Religious violence is very rare in the country. The major Muslim holidays of Eid al fitr (end of Ramadan), Eid Al Adha, and Mawlid Al Nabi (commemorate the birth of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad) are officially celebrated as national holidays in Sierra Leone. The major Christian holidays of Christmas, Easter, Boxing Day and Good Friday are also officially celebrated as national holidays in Sierra Leone. In politics, the overwhelming majority of Sierra Leoneans vote for a candidate without regard to whether the candidate is a Muslim or a Christian.
Sierra Leone has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base. It is also among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, a major producer of gold and has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile. Sierra Leone is home to the third-largest natural harbour in the world. Despite exploitation of this natural wealth, 70% of its population live in poverty.
Sierra Leone is a member of many international organisations, including the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Mano River Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, the African Development Bank and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 101 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 36.08%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 39.15%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 113 / 194
Least developed countries rank: 11 / 48
Least developed countries Avg. Ratifications: 79 / 282
Western Africa rank: 10 / 16
Western Africa Avg. Ratifications: 103 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 0/3 0.00% 18.00% 70 Weak
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 0/4 0.00% 3.00% 31 Weak
Sale of Goods 0/5 0.00% 25.00% 89 Weak
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 9.00% 145 Weak
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 1/3 (33.33%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 1/6 (16.67%) 33.33% 26.00% 71 Strong
Exemption from Duties 5/9 (55.56%) 55.56% 30.00% 44 Strong
Temporary Admission 3/11 (27.27%) 32.35% 28.00% 66 Strong
Transit 0/4 0.00% 28.00% 98 Weak
Total 10 39.13% 31.00% 68 Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 0/6 0.00% 32.00% 157 Weak
Judicial cooperation 0/5 0.00% 36.00% 119 Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 0/4 0.00% 14.00% 29 Weak
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 0/1 0.00% 11.00% 22 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 29.00% 171 Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 0/1 0.00% 78.00% 152 Weak
Energy 0/2 0.00% 25.00% 50 Weak
Flora and fauna 6/10 (60.00%) 60.87% 68.00% 146 Weak
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 18/26 (69.23%) 71.74% 46.00% 36 Strong
Protected geographical areas 0/1 0.00% 27.00% 54 Weak
Waste 0/1 0.00% 93.00% 181 Weak
Total 31 66.15% 61.00% 79 Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 0/4 0.00% 8.00% 43 Weak
Cheques 0/3 0.00% 13.00% 36 Weak
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 0/3 0.00% 20.00% 75 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 12.00% 117 Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 2/4 (50.00%) 66.67% 50.00% 34 Strong
Cultural Property 1/4 (25.00%) 31.25% 54.00% 142 Weak
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 80.00% 1 Strong
Total 8 69.23% 68.00% 86 Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 6/7 (85.71%) 85.71% 96.00% 143 Weak
Labour Standards 7/8 (87.50%) 87.50% 86.00% 134 Weak
Total 13 86.67% 91.00% 150 Weak
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 0/1 0.00% 39.00% 77 Weak
International Trade Law 7/10 (70.00%) 70.00% 73.00% 84 Weak
Trade support institutions 1/6 (16.67%) 16.67% 51.00% 146 Weak
Total 8 47.06% 63.00% 126 Weak
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 0/1 0.00% 47.00% 93 Weak
Copyright 0/3 0.00% 65.00% 172 Weak
Industrial designs 0/2 0.00% 31.00% 82 Weak
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 0/3 0.00% 46.00% 120 Weak
Origin 0/3 0.00% 14.00% 51 Weak
Patents 2/5 (40.00%) 47.62% 57.00% 87 Weak
Trademarks 2/6 (33.33%) 36.36% 33.00% 68 Average
Varieties of plants 0/1 0.00% 37.00% 73 Weak
Total 4 18.95% 42.00% 143 Weak
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 24.00% 1 Strong
Timber 0/1 0.00% 31.00% 61 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 61.54% 53.00% 61 Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 4/7 (57.14%) 57.14% 59.00% 109 Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 4/9 (44.44%) 56.00% 74.00% 151 Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 10/13 (76.92%) 91.43% 66.00% 38 Strong
Maritime transport 3/12 (25.00%) 37.50% 27.00% 46 Strong
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 0/3 0.00% 22.00% 50 Weak
Road transport 0/4 0.00% 31.00% 86 Weak
Space 1/4 (25.00%) 50.00% 40.00% 76 Strong
Telecommunications 0/2 0.00% 47.00% 114 Weak
Total 22 47.30% 50.00% 111 Weak
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 0/4 0.00% 30.00% 113 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 30.00% 113 Weak
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 0/2 0.00% 18.00% 45 Weak
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 1 45.45% 47.00% 45 Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Organized crime
Investments Investment disputes
Products Marine Resources
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
Intellectual property Trademarks
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Sale of Goods
Contracts Travel contracts
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Origin
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
Treaties law General
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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