Romania

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Romania ( roh-MAY-nee-ə; Romanian: România [romɨˈni.a]) is a sovereign state located in Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, and Moldova. It has an area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi) and a temperate-continental climate. With almost 20 million inhabitants, the country is the seventh most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city, Bucharest, is the sixth-largest city in the EU, with 1,883,425 inhabitants as of 2011.
The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km (1775 mi), coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu, at 2,544 m (8,346 ft).
Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. At the end of World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. During World War II, Romania was an ally of Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, fighting side by side with the Wehrmacht until 1944, when it joined the Allied powers and faced occupation by the Red Army forces. Romania lost several territories, of which Northern Transylvania was regained after the war. Following the war, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition towards democracy and a capitalist market economy.
Romania is a developing country and one of the poorest in the European Union, ranking 50th in the Human Development Index. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. It has been a member of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. A strong majority of the population identify themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. The cultural history of Romania is often referred to when dealing with influential artists, musicians, inventors and sportspeople.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 167 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 57.65%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 63.14%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 30 / 194
Eastern Europe rank: 6 / 10
Eastern Europe Avg. Ratifications: 160 / 282
Europe Union rank: 25 / 28
Europe Union Avg. Ratifications: 180 / 282
Transition economy rank: 10 / 28
Transition economy Avg. Ratifications: 141 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 0/3 0.00% 18.00% 70 Weak
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 1/4 (25.00%) 21.43% 3.00% 1 Strong
Sale of Goods 3/5 (60.00%) 81.82% 25.00% 2 Strong
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 4 17.39% 9.00% 25 Strong
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 2/6 (33.33%) 40.00% 26.00% 48 Strong
Exemption from Duties 6/9 (66.67%) 66.67% 30.00% 23 Strong
Temporary Admission 8/11 (72.73%) 82.35% 28.00% 18 Strong
Transit 2/4 (50.00%) 72.73% 28.00% 17 Strong
Total 20 70.65% 31.00% 23 Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 3/6 (50.00%) 35.00% 32.00% 73 Weak
Judicial cooperation 5/5 (100.00%) 100.00% 36.00% 1 Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 1/4 (25.00%) 100.00% 14.00% 1 Strong
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 11.00% 1 Strong
Total 10 68.00% 29.00% 10 Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 25.00% 1 Strong
Flora and fauna 6/10 (60.00%) 65.22% 68.00% 91 Weak
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 11/26 (42.31%) 48.91% 46.00% 97 Weak
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 27.00% 1 Strong
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 29 64.06% 61.00% 88 Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 21.00% 1 Strong
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 0/4 0.00% 8.00% 43 Weak
Cheques 0/3 0.00% 13.00% 36 Weak
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 0/3 0.00% 20.00% 75 Weak
Total 1 12.20% 12.00% 85 Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 2/4 (50.00%) 66.67% 50.00% 34 Strong
Cultural Property 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 54.00% 1 Strong
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 80.00% 1 Strong
Total 11 90.38% 68.00% 7 Strong
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 8/8 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Total 15 100.00% 91.00% 1 Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 0/1 0.00% 39.00% 77 Weak
International Trade Law 10/10 (100.00%) 100.00% 73.00% 1 Strong
Trade support institutions 5/6 (83.33%) 83.33% 51.00% 29 Strong
Total 15 88.24% 63.00% 36 Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
Copyright 2/3 (66.67%) 90.91% 65.00% 48 Strong
Industrial designs 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 46.00% 1 Strong
Origin 1/3 (33.33%) 33.33% 14.00% 24 Strong
Patents 5/5 (100.00%) 100.00% 57.00% 1 Strong
Trademarks 6/6 (100.00%) 100.00% 33.00% 1 Strong
Varieties of plants 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 37.00% 1 Strong
Total 21 91.58% 42.00% 5 Strong
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 0/1 0.00% 24.00% 48 Weak
Timber 0/1 0.00% 31.00% 61 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 1 38.46% 53.00% 85 Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 4/7 (57.14%) 76.19% 59.00% 54 Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 5/9 (55.56%) 68.00% 74.00% 134 Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 11/13 (84.62%) 94.29% 66.00% 11 Strong
Maritime transport 5/12 (41.67%) 37.50% 27.00% 46 Strong
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 22.00% 1 Strong
Road transport 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
Space 2/4 (50.00%) 66.67% 40.00% 55 Strong
Telecommunications 1/2 (50.00%) 83.33% 47.00% 26 Strong
Total 35 76.35% 50.00% 18 Strong
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 0/4 0.00% 30.00% 113 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 30.00% 113 Weak
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 18.00% 1 Strong
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 3 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Sale of Goods
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Origin
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment disputes
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Travel contracts
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Marine Resources
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Treaties law General
Instruments ratifications

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