Romania

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Romania ( ( listen) roh-MAY-nee-ə; Romanian: România [romɨˈni.a]) is a sovereign state located in Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, and Moldova. It has an area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi) and a temperate-continental climate. With almost 20 million inhabitants, the country is the seventh most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city, Bucharest, is the sixth-largest city in the EU, with 1,883,425 inhabitants as of 2011.
The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km (1,775 mi), coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu, at 2,544 m (8,346 ft).
Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. At the end of World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. During World War II, Romania was an ally of Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, fighting side by side with the Wehrmacht until 1944, when it joined the Allied powers and faced occupation by the Red Army forces. Romania lost several territories, of which Northern Transylvania was regained after the war. Following the war, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition towards democracy and a capitalist market economy.
Romania is a developing country and one of the poorest in the European Union, ranking 50th in the Human Development Index, although as of 2017 its economy is growing at an estimated annual rate of 5%, tied with Malta for the highest in the EU. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. It has been a member of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. A strong majority of the population identify themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. The cultural history of Romania is often referred to when dealing with influential artists, musicians, inventors, and sportspeople.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 167 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 57.65%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 63.14%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 30 / 194
Eastern Europe rank: 6 / 10
Eastern Europe Avg. Ratifications: 160 / 282
Europe Union rank: 25 / 28
Europe Union Avg. Ratifications: 180 / 282
Transition economy rank: 10 / 28
Transition economy Avg. Ratifications: 141 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce0/30.00%18.00%70Weak
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement1/4 (25.00%)21.43%3.00%1Strong
Sale of Goods3/5 (60.00%)81.82%25.00%2Strong
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total417.39%9.00%25Strong
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation2/6 (33.33%)40.00%26.00%48Strong
Exemption from Duties6/9 (66.67%)66.67%30.00%23Strong
Temporary Admission8/11 (72.73%)82.35%28.00%18Strong
Transit2/4 (50.00%)72.73%28.00%17Strong
Total2070.65%31.00%23Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration3/6 (50.00%)35.00%32.00%73Weak
Judicial cooperation5/5 (100.00%)100.00%36.00%1Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction1/4 (25.00%)100.00%14.00%1Strong
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 1/1 (100.00%)100.00%11.00%1Strong
Total1068.00%29.00%10Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy2/2 (100.00%)100.00%25.00%1Strong
Flora and fauna6/10 (60.00%)65.22%68.00%91Weak
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea11/26 (42.31%)48.91%46.00%97Weak
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%)100.00%27.00%1Strong
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total2964.06%61.00%88Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency1/1 (100.00%)100.00%21.00%1Strong
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees0/30.00%20.00%75Weak
Total112.20%12.00%85Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption2/4 (50.00%)66.67%50.00%34Strong
Cultural Property4/4 (100.00%)100.00%54.00%1Strong
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime2/2 (100.00%)100.00%80.00%1Strong
Total1190.38%68.00%7Strong
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights7/7 (100.00%)100.00%96.00%1Weak
Labour Standards8/8 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Total15100.00%91.00%1Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution0/10.00%39.00%77Weak
International Trade Law 10/10 (100.00%)100.00%73.00%1Strong
Trade support institutions5/6 (83.33%)83.33%51.00%29Strong
Total1588.24%63.00%36Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting1/1 (100.00%)100.00%47.00%1Strong
Copyright2/3 (66.67%)90.91%65.00%48Strong
Industrial designs2/2 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights3/3 (100.00%)100.00%46.00%1Strong
Origin1/3 (33.33%)33.33%14.00%24Strong
Patents5/5 (100.00%)100.00%57.00%1Strong
Trademarks6/6 (100.00%)100.00%33.00%1Strong
Varieties of plants1/1 (100.00%)100.00%37.00%1Strong
Total2191.58%42.00%5Strong
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total266.67%57.00%2Strong
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber0/10.00%31.00%61Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total138.46%53.00%85Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport4/7 (57.14%)76.19%59.00%54Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 5/9 (55.56%)68.00%74.00%134Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 11/13 (84.62%)94.29%66.00%11Strong
Maritime transport5/12 (41.67%)37.50%27.00%46Strong
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport3/3 (100.00%)100.00%22.00%1Strong
Road transport4/4 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
Space2/4 (50.00%)66.67%40.00%55Strong
Telecommunications1/2 (50.00%)83.33%47.00%26Strong
Total3576.35%50.00%18Strong
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General0/40.00%30.00%113Weak
Total00.00%30.00%113Weak
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements2/2 (100.00%)100.00%18.00%1Strong
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total3100.00%47.00%1Strong
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
ContractsProcurement
ContractsSale of Goods
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsTravel contracts
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Treaties lawGeneral
Instruments ratifications

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