Wikipedia Country Information

Peru ( ( listen); Spanish: Perú [peˈɾu]; Quechua: Piruw [pʰɪɾʊw]; Aymara: Piruw [pɪɾʊw]), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.
Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures, ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas, to the Inca Empire, the largest and most sophisticated state in pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima. Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a developing country with an upper middle income economy and a high Human Development Index score with a poverty level around 25.8 percent. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing. The country also forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America’s Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation; and it is considered as a middle power.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

Instruments ratified: 123 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 44.51%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 51.46%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 65 / 194
Developing country rank: 18 / 87
Developing country Avg. Ratifications: 109 / 282
South America rank: 4 / 13
South America Avg. Ratifications: 111 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Sale of Goods1/5 (20.00%)45.45%25.00%29Strong
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation0/60.00%26.00%117Weak
Exemption from Duties2/9 (22.22%)29.63%30.00%81Weak
Temporary Admission1/11 (9.09%)14.71%28.00%94Weak
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration2/6 (33.33%)50.00%32.00%29Strong
Judicial cooperation1/5 (20.00%)26.32%36.00%76Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction0/40.00%14.00%29Weak
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air5/5 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Flora and fauna8/10 (80.00%)82.61%68.00%29Strong
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea11/26 (42.31%)46.74%46.00%103Weak
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%)100.00%27.00%1Strong
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees0/30.00%20.00%75Weak
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption1/4 (25.00%)41.67%50.00%92Weak
Cultural Property3/4 (75.00%)81.25%54.00%21Strong
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime2/2 (100.00%)100.00%80.00%1Strong
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights7/7 (100.00%)100.00%96.00%1Weak
Labour Standards8/8 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution0/10.00%39.00%77Weak
International Trade Law 8/10 (80.00%)80.00%73.00%56Average
Trade support institutions3/6 (50.00%)50.00%51.00%82Weak
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting1/1 (100.00%)100.00%47.00%1Strong
Copyright3/3 (100.00%)100.00%65.00%1Strong
Industrial designs0/20.00%31.00%82Weak
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights3/3 (100.00%)100.00%46.00%1Strong
Origin2/3 (66.67%)66.67%14.00%7Strong
Patents3/5 (60.00%)71.43%57.00%60Strong
Trademarks1/6 (16.67%)22.73%33.00%86Weak
Varieties of plants1/1 (100.00%)100.00%37.00%1Strong
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber1/1 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport4/7 (57.14%)76.19%59.00%54Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 4/9 (44.44%)56.00%74.00%151Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 10/13 (76.92%)85.71%66.00%55Strong
Maritime transport4/12 (33.33%)33.33%27.00%55Strong
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport0/30.00%22.00%50Weak
Road transport1/4 (25.00%)27.78%31.00%70Weak
Space4/4 (100.00%)100.00%40.00%1Strong
Telecommunications2/2 (100.00%)100.00%47.00%1Strong
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General1/4 (25.00%)41.67%30.00%41Strong
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements0/20.00%18.00%45Weak
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Strengths and Weakness
ContractsSale of Goods
CustomsCustoms Codification
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOWTO Agreements
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsMarine Resources
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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