Malaysia

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Malaysia ( mə-LAY-zhə or mə-LAY-see-ə; Malaysian pronunciation: [məlejsiə]) is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories and has a total landmass of 330,803 square kilometres (127,720 sq mi) separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo). Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. The capital city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. Located in the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries on earth, with large numbers of endemic species.
Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire. The first British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. Less than two years later in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation.
The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a large role in politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese which also form the second largest community of Overseas Chinese in the world, Malaysian Indians, and indigenous peoples. The constitution grants freedom of religion but recognised Islam as the established religion of the state. Despite being a majority Muslim country, Malaysia has been widely regarded as a rather moderate Muslim majority country.
The government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. He is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the prime minister. The country official language is Bahasa Malaysia or commonly known as Malay language. English remains as an active second language. English proficiency in Malaysia has been highly ranked as the second best in Asia after Singapore and 12th best in the world as of 2016.
Since its independence, Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with its GDP growing at an average of 6.5% per annum for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism, commerce and medical tourism. It is also one of the few developing countries to subsidise heavily on education and healthcare. Its citizens are entitled to free public education up to secondary education level and public tertiary education fees are subsidised as much as 90%. Basic healthcare services at government run clinics with prescription cost RM1. Disabled, senior citizens and public school students are entitled to free healthcare. Its healthcare services have been highly regarded as one the best in the world and the UN Development Programme has called Malaysia healthcare system "a model to other developing countries".
Malaysia unprecedented and recent rapid development have attracted millions of migrant workers from all over Asia in the recent years. Majority of them are undocumented in which the Malaysian government is struggling to combat. Its treatment and crackdown on migrant workers have often been criticised by international human rights watchdog.
Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked 4th largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world. It is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Malaysia is also a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Non-Aligned Movement. In 2017, Malaysian citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 164 countries and territories, ranking the Malaysian passport 5th most powerful in the world.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 118 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 44.16%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 50.24%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 65 / 194
Developing country rank: 22 / 87
Developing country Avg. Ratifications: 109 / 282
South-East Asia rank: 1 / 11
South-East Asia Avg. Ratifications: 89 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 1/3 (33.33%) 33.33% 18.00% 33 Strong
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 0/4 0.00% 3.00% 31 Weak
Sale of Goods 0/5 0.00% 25.00% 89 Weak
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 1 7.25% 9.00% 94 Weak
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 2/6 (33.33%) 53.33% 26.00% 26 Strong
Exemption from Duties 4/9 (44.44%) 51.85% 30.00% 53 Strong
Temporary Admission 2/11 (18.18%) 23.53% 28.00% 77 Weak
Transit 0/4 0.00% 28.00% 98 Weak
Total 10 38.04% 31.00% 69 Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 2/6 (33.33%) 50.00% 32.00% 29 Strong
Judicial cooperation 0/5 0.00% 36.00% 119 Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 0/4 0.00% 14.00% 29 Weak
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 0/1 0.00% 11.00% 22 Weak
Total 2 20.00% 29.00% 95 Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 0/2 0.00% 25.00% 50 Weak
Flora and fauna 7/10 (70.00%) 76.09% 68.00% 46 Strong
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 16/26 (61.54%) 65.22% 46.00% 55 Strong
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 27.00% 1 Strong
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 33 73.44% 61.00% 43 Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 1/4 (25.00%) 10.00% 8.00% 32 Strong
Cheques 1/3 (33.33%) 20.00% 13.00% 26 Strong
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 2/3 (66.67%) 54.55% 20.00% 5 Strong
Total 4 19.51% 12.00% 43 Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 2/4 (50.00%) 66.67% 50.00% 34 Strong
Cultural Property 1/4 (25.00%) 31.25% 54.00% 142 Weak
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 1/2 (50.00%) 62.50% 80.00% 112 Weak
Total 7 63.46% 68.00% 123 Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 7/8 (87.50%) 87.50% 86.00% 134 Weak
Total 14 93.33% 91.00% 126 Weak
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 39.00% 1 Strong
International Trade Law 8/10 (80.00%) 80.00% 73.00% 56 Average
Trade support institutions 4/6 (66.67%) 66.67% 51.00% 56 Strong
Total 13 76.47% 63.00% 61 Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 0/1 0.00% 47.00% 93 Weak
Copyright 2/3 (66.67%) 90.91% 65.00% 48 Strong
Industrial designs 0/2 0.00% 31.00% 82 Weak
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 1/3 (33.33%) 38.46% 46.00% 85 Weak
Origin 0/3 0.00% 14.00% 51 Weak
Patents 2/5 (40.00%) 47.62% 57.00% 87 Weak
Trademarks 2/6 (33.33%) 18.18% 33.00% 111 Weak
Varieties of plants 0/1 0.00% 37.00% 73 Weak
Total 7 30.53% 42.00% 111 Weak
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 0/1 0.00% 24.00% 48 Weak
Timber 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 76.92% 53.00% 23 Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 5/7 (71.43%) 90.48% 59.00% 4 Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 5/9 (55.56%) 76.00% 74.00% 80 Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 8/13 (61.54%) 74.29% 66.00% 99 Strong
Maritime transport 2/12 (16.67%) 25.00% 27.00% 94 Weak
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 0/3 0.00% 22.00% 50 Weak
Road transport 0/4 0.00% 31.00% 86 Weak
Space 0/4 0.00% 40.00% 120 Weak
Telecommunications 1/2 (50.00%) 83.33% 47.00% 26 Strong
Total 21 50.68% 50.00% 95 Weak
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 1/4 (25.00%) 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
Total 1 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 0/2 0.00% 18.00% 45 Weak
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 1 45.45% 47.00% 45 Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Contracts E-commerce
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Exemption from Duties
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Copyright
Investments Investment disputes
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
Treaties law General
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Sale of Goods
Contracts Travel contracts
Customs Temporary Admission
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Origin
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Marine Resources
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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