Latvia

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Latvia, ; Latvian: Latvija [ˈlatvija]), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states. It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, and Belarus to the southeast, as well as sharing a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Latvia has 1,957,200 inhabitants and a territory of 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi). The country has a temperate seasonal climate.
After centuries of Swedish, Livonian, Polish and Russian rule, a rule mainly executed by the privileged Baltic German aristocracy, the Republic of Latvia was established on 18 November 1918 after declaring independence from Russia in the aftermath of World War I. However, by the 1930s, the country became increasingly autocratic after the coup in 1934 establishing an authoritarian regime under Kārlis Ulmanis. The country's de facto independence was interrupted at the outset of World War II, beginning with Latvia's forcible incorporation into the Soviet Union, followed by the invasion and occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941, and the re-occupation by the Soviets in 1944 to form the Latvian SSR for the next fifty years. The peaceful Singing Revolution, starting in 1987, called for Baltic emancipation from Soviet rule and condemning the "Stalinist" regime's illegal takeover. It ended with the Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia on 4 May 1990, and restoring de facto independence on 21 August 1991.
Latvia is a democratic republic and a highly developed country. Its capital Riga served as the European Capital of Culture in 2014. Latvian is the official language. Latvia is a unitary state, divided into 119 administrative divisions, of which 110 are municipalities and 9 are cities. Latvians are the indigenous people of Latvia. Latvian and Lithuanian are the only two surviving Baltic languages. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via the language and musical traditions. As a consequence of centuries of Russian rule (1710–1918) and later Soviet occupation, Latvia is home to a large number of ethnic Russians (26.9% in Latvia), some of whom (14.1% of Latvian residents) have not gained citizenship, leaving them with no citizenship at all. Until World War II, Latvia also had significant minorities of ethnic Germans and Jews. Latvia is historically predominantly Protestant Lutheran, except for the Latgale region in the southeast, which has historically been predominantly Roman Catholic. The Russian population has also brought a significant portion of Eastern Orthodox Christians.
It is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe, the United Nations, CBSS, the IMF, NB8, NIB, OECD, OSCE, and WTO. For 2014, Latvia was listed 46th on the Human Development Index and as a high income country on 1 July 2014. A full member of the Eurozone, it uses the euro as its currency since 1 January 2014, replacing the Latvian lats.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 156 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 55.32%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 61.62%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 36 / 194
Europe Union rank: 27 / 28
Europe Union Avg. Ratifications: 180 / 282
Northern Europe rank: 9 / 10
Northern Europe Avg. Ratifications: 174 / 282
Transition economy rank: 13 / 28
Transition economy Avg. Ratifications: 141 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 0/3 0.00% 18.00% 70 Weak
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 5.00% 1 Strong
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 0/4 0.00% 3.00% 31 Weak
Sale of Goods 1/5 (20.00%) 45.45% 25.00% 29 Strong
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 3 15.94% 9.00% 31 Strong
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 3/6 (50.00%) 60.00% 26.00% 4 Strong
Exemption from Duties 2/9 (22.22%) 22.22% 30.00% 92 Weak
Temporary Admission 1/11 (9.09%) 14.71% 28.00% 94 Weak
Transit 2/4 (50.00%) 72.73% 28.00% 17 Strong
Total 10 35.87% 31.00% 71 Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 1/6 (16.67%) 25.00% 32.00% 86 Weak
Judicial cooperation 5/5 (100.00%) 100.00% 36.00% 1 Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 1/4 (25.00%) 100.00% 14.00% 1 Strong
State court procedure 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 6.00% 1 Strong
State immunities 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 11.00% 1 Strong
Total 9 66.00% 29.00% 20 Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 25.00% 1 Strong
Flora and fauna 7/10 (70.00%) 76.09% 68.00% 46 Strong
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 17/26 (65.38%) 72.83% 46.00% 34 Strong
Protected geographical areas 0/1 0.00% 27.00% 54 Weak
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 35 76.56% 61.00% 31 Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 0/4 0.00% 8.00% 43 Weak
Cheques 0/3 0.00% 13.00% 36 Weak
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 2/3 (66.67%) 54.55% 20.00% 5 Strong
Total 2 14.63% 12.00% 52 Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 3/4 (75.00%) 75.00% 50.00% 6 Strong
Cultural Property 1/4 (25.00%) 31.25% 54.00% 142 Weak
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 80.00% 1 Strong
Total 9 71.15% 68.00% 80 Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 8/8 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Total 15 100.00% 91.00% 1 Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 0/1 0.00% 39.00% 77 Weak
International Trade Law 9/10 (90.00%) 90.00% 73.00% 34 Strong
Trade support institutions 4/6 (66.67%) 66.67% 51.00% 56 Strong
Total 13 76.47% 63.00% 61 Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
Copyright 2/3 (66.67%) 90.91% 65.00% 48 Strong
Industrial designs 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 46.00% 1 Strong
Origin 0/3 0.00% 14.00% 51 Weak
Patents 4/5 (80.00%) 85.71% 57.00% 30 Strong
Trademarks 5/6 (83.33%) 95.45% 33.00% 10 Strong
Varieties of plants 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 37.00% 1 Strong
Total 18 84.21% 42.00% 21 Strong
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 0/1 0.00% 24.00% 48 Weak
Timber 0/1 0.00% 31.00% 61 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 1 38.46% 53.00% 85 Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 4/7 (57.14%) 76.19% 59.00% 54 Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 5/9 (55.56%) 76.00% 74.00% 80 Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 11/13 (84.62%) 94.29% 66.00% 11 Strong
Maritime transport 8/12 (66.67%) 50.00% 27.00% 13 Strong
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 2/3 (66.67%) 72.73% 22.00% 36 Strong
Road transport 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
Space 0/4 0.00% 40.00% 120 Weak
Telecommunications 1/2 (50.00%) 83.33% 47.00% 26 Strong
Total 35 75.00% 50.00% 21 Strong
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 1/4 (25.00%) 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
Total 1 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 18.00% 1 Strong
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 3 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Sale of Goods
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment disputes
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
Treaties law General
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Travel contracts
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Environment and products Air
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Origin
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Marine Resources
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
Instruments ratifications

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