Luxembourg

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Luxembourg () (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg [ˈlətsəbuːə̯ɕ]; French: Luxembourg, German: Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is, together with Brussels and Strasbourg, one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest juridical authority in the EU. Its culture, people and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and Germanic cultures. This is emphasised by the three official languages, Luxembourgish, French, and German. The repeated invasions by Germany, especially in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union.
With an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi), it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe, about the same size as the US state of Rhode Island or the English county of Northamptonshire. In 2016, Luxembourg had a population of 576 249, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by a Grand Duke, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita. The City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city.
The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, and the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage, war and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor. The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors at the high time of the Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and then one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was gradually built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresia, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon.
The present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part (except the Arelerland, the area around Arlon) became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
The steel industry exploiting the Red Lands' rich iron-ore grounds in the beginning of the 20th century drove the country's industrialisation. ArcelorMittal, the world's largest steel producer with headquarters in Luxembourg City, is still a reminder of these times. After the decline of the steel industry in the 1970s, the country focused on establishing itself as a global financial centre and developed into the banking hub it is reputed for. Since the beginning of the 21st century, its governments have focused on developing the country into a knowledge economy, with the founding of the University of Luxembourg and a national space programme, projecting the first involvement in a robotic lunar expedition by 2020.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux, reflecting its political consensus in favour of economic, political, and military integration. The city of Luxembourg, which is the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, which was a first in the country's history. In 2016 Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 172 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgian passport equal 15th in the world, tied with countries such as Canada and Switzerland.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 179 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 64.67%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 68.50%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 14 / 194
Developed country rank: 13 / 30
Developed country Avg. Ratifications: 159 / 282
Europe Union rank: 11 / 28
Europe Union Avg. Ratifications: 180 / 282
Western Europe rank: 6 / 10
Western Europe Avg. Ratifications: 169 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 2/7 (28.57%) 28.57% 3.00% 3 Strong
E-commerce 0/3 0.00% 18.00% 70 Weak
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 0/4 0.00% 3.00% 31 Weak
Sale of Goods 3/5 (60.00%) 63.64% 25.00% 23 Strong
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 5 13.04% 9.00% 63 Strong
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 2/6 (33.33%) 40.00% 26.00% 48 Strong
Exemption from Duties 6/9 (66.67%) 66.67% 30.00% 23 Strong
Temporary Admission 9/11 (81.82%) 91.18% 28.00% 9 Strong
Transit 2/4 (50.00%) 72.73% 28.00% 17 Strong
Total 21 73.91% 31.00% 18 Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 4/6 (66.67%) 50.00% 32.00% 29 Strong
Judicial cooperation 5/5 (100.00%) 100.00% 36.00% 1 Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 1/4 (25.00%) 100.00% 14.00% 1 Strong
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 0/1 0.00% 11.00% 22 Weak
Total 10 68.00% 29.00% 10 Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 25.00% 1 Strong
Flora and fauna 8/10 (80.00%) 86.96% 68.00% 23 Strong
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 18.00% 1 Strong
Maritime and Law of the Sea 15/26 (57.69%) 64.13% 46.00% 56 Strong
Protected geographical areas 0/1 0.00% 27.00% 54 Weak
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 35 75.52% 61.00% 37 Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 3/4 (75.00%) 50.00% 8.00% 1 Strong
Cheques 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 13.00% 1 Strong
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 2/3 (66.67%) 54.55% 20.00% 5 Strong
Total 8 39.02% 12.00% 3 Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 2/4 (50.00%) 50.00% 50.00% 82 Weak
Cultural Property 2/4 (50.00%) 50.00% 54.00% 61 Weak
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 4.00% 1 Strong
Organized crime 1/2 (50.00%) 62.50% 80.00% 112 Weak
Total 9 67.31% 68.00% 116 Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 8/8 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Total 15 100.00% 91.00% 1 Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 39.00% 1 Strong
International Trade Law 8/10 (80.00%) 80.00% 73.00% 56 Average
Trade support institutions 5/6 (83.33%) 83.33% 51.00% 29 Strong
Total 14 82.35% 63.00% 46 Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
Copyright 2/3 (66.67%) 90.91% 65.00% 48 Strong
Industrial designs 1/2 (50.00%) 62.50% 31.00% 37 Strong
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 46.00% 1 Strong
Origin 0/3 0.00% 14.00% 51 Weak
Patents 4/5 (80.00%) 85.71% 57.00% 30 Strong
Trademarks 6/6 (100.00%) 100.00% 33.00% 1 Strong
Varieties of plants 0/1 0.00% 37.00% 73 Weak
Total 17 76.84% 42.00% 35 Strong
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 0/1 0.00% 24.00% 48 Weak
Timber 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 76.92% 53.00% 23 Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 5/7 (71.43%) 90.48% 59.00% 4 Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 7/9 (77.78%) 92.00% 74.00% 11 Strong
Maritime shipping and load lines 11/13 (84.62%) 94.29% 66.00% 11 Strong
Maritime transport 6/12 (50.00%) 41.67% 27.00% 30 Strong
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 22.00% 1 Strong
Road transport 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
Space 1/4 (25.00%) 16.67% 40.00% 103 Weak
Telecommunications 0/2 0.00% 47.00% 114 Weak
Total 37 77.70% 50.00% 16 Strong
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 1/4 (25.00%) 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
Total 1 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 18.00% 1 Strong
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 3 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts Sale of Goods
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Investments Investment disputes
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Treaties law General
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Travel contracts
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Air
Environment and products General
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Origin
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Marine Resources
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
Instruments ratifications

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