Luxembourg

Wikipedia Country Information

Luxembourg () (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg [ˈlətsəbuəɕ]; German: Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is, together with Brussels and Strasbourg, one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest juridical authority in the EU. Its culture, people and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and Germanic cultures. This is emphasised by the three official languages, Luxembourgish, French, and German. The repeated invasions by its neighbour countries, especially in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union.
With an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi), it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe, about the same size as the US state of Rhode Island or the English county of Northamptonshire. In 2016, Luxembourg had a population of 576 249, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by a Grand Duke, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita. The City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city.
The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, and the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage, war and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor. The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors at the high time of the Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and then one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was gradually built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresia, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon.
The present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
The steel industry exploiting the Red Lands' rich iron-ore grounds in the beginning of the 20th century drove the country's industrialisation. ArcelorMittal, the world's largest steel producer with headquarters in Luxembourg City, is still a reminder of these times. After the decline of the steel industry in the 1970s, the country focused on establishing itself as a global financial centre and developed into the banking hub it is reputed for. Since the beginning of the 21st century, its governments have focused on developing the country into a knowledge economy, with the founding of the University of Luxembourg and a national space programme, projecting the first involvement in a non-manned lunar expedition by 2020.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux, reflecting its political consensus in favour of economic, political, and military integration. The city of Luxembourg, which is the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, which was a first in the country's history. In 2016 Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 172 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgian passport equal 15th in the world, tied with countries such as Canada and Switzerland.


Instruments ratified: 179 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 64.67%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 68.50%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 14 / 194
Developed country rank: 13 / 30
Developed country Avg. Ratifications: 159 / 282
Europe Union rank: 11 / 28
Europe Union Avg. Ratifications: 180 / 282
Western Europe rank: 6 / 10
Western Europe Avg. Ratifications: 169 / 282
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws2/7 (28.57%)28.57%3.00%3Strong
E-commerce0/30.00%18.00%70Weak
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement0/40.00%3.00%31Weak
Sale of Goods3/5 (60.00%)63.64%25.00%23Strong
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total513.04%9.00%63Strong
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation2/6 (33.33%)40.00%26.00%48Strong
Exemption from Duties6/9 (66.67%)66.67%30.00%23Strong
Temporary Admission9/11 (81.82%)91.18%28.00%9Strong
Transit2/4 (50.00%)72.73%28.00%17Strong
Total2173.91%31.00%18Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration4/6 (66.67%)50.00%32.00%29Strong
Judicial cooperation5/5 (100.00%)100.00%36.00%1Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction1/4 (25.00%)100.00%14.00%1Strong
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
Total1068.00%29.00%10Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy2/2 (100.00%)100.00%25.00%1Strong
Flora and fauna8/10 (80.00%)86.96%68.00%23Strong
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses1/1 (100.00%)100.00%18.00%1Strong
Maritime and Law of the Sea15/26 (57.69%)64.13%46.00%56Strong
Protected geographical areas 0/10.00%27.00%54Weak
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total3575.52%61.00%37Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes3/4 (75.00%)50.00%8.00%1Strong
Cheques3/3 (100.00%)100.00%13.00%1Strong
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees2/3 (66.67%)54.55%20.00%5Strong
Total839.02%12.00%3Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption2/4 (50.00%)50.00%50.00%82Weak
Cultural Property2/4 (50.00%)50.00%54.00%61Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading1/1 (100.00%)100.00%4.00%1Strong
Organized crime1/2 (50.00%)62.50%80.00%112Weak
Total967.31%68.00%116Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights7/7 (100.00%)100.00%96.00%1Weak
Labour Standards8/8 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Total15100.00%91.00%1Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution1/1 (100.00%)100.00%39.00%1Strong
International Trade Law 8/10 (80.00%)80.00%73.00%56Average
Trade support institutions5/6 (83.33%)83.33%51.00%29Strong
Total1482.35%63.00%46Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting1/1 (100.00%)100.00%47.00%1Strong
Copyright2/3 (66.67%)90.91%65.00%48Strong
Industrial designs1/2 (50.00%)62.50%31.00%37Strong
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights3/3 (100.00%)100.00%46.00%1Strong
Origin0/30.00%14.00%51Weak
Patents4/5 (80.00%)85.71%57.00%30Strong
Trademarks6/6 (100.00%)100.00%33.00%1Strong
Varieties of plants0/10.00%37.00%73Weak
Total1776.84%42.00%35Strong
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total266.67%57.00%2Strong
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber1/1 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total276.92%53.00%23Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport5/7 (71.43%)90.48%59.00%4Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 7/9 (77.78%)92.00%74.00%11Strong
Maritime shipping and load lines 11/13 (84.62%)94.29%66.00%11Strong
Maritime transport6/12 (50.00%)41.67%27.00%30Strong
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport3/3 (100.00%)100.00%22.00%1Strong
Road transport4/4 (100.00%)100.00%31.00%1Strong
Space1/4 (25.00%)16.67%40.00%103Weak
Telecommunications0/20.00%47.00%114Weak
Total3777.70%50.00%16Strong
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General1/4 (25.00%)41.67%30.00%41Strong
Total141.67%30.00%41Strong
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements2/2 (100.00%)100.00%18.00%1Strong
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total3100.00%47.00%1Strong
 
Strong
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsSale of Goods
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsProcurement
ContractsTravel contracts
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications

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