Kazakhstan

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Kazakhstan (US: , UK: ; Kazakh: Қазақстан, tr. Qazaqstan, IPA: [qɑzɑqˈstɑn]; Russian: Казахстан, tr. Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы, tr. Qazaqstan Respwblïkası; Russian: Республика Казахстан, tr. Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi). Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil/gas industry. It also has vast mineral resources.
Kazakhstan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and also adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea. The terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, steppe, taiga, rock canyons, hills, deltas, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18 million people as of 2014. Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre (15 people per sq. mi.). The capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from Almaty, the country's largest city.
The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate and etc. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz (ancestor branches occupying specific territories). The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union.
Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The current President, Nursultan Nazarbayev, has been leader of the country since then, and is characterised as authoritarian, with a government history of human rights abuses and suppression of political opposition. Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy, especially its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Human Rights Watch says that "Kazakhstan heavily restricts freedom of assembly, speech, and religion," and other human rights organisations regularly describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor.
Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs (63% of the population), Russians, Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Germans, Tatars, and Uyghurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%. Kazakhstan officially allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed. The Kazakh language is the state language, and Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, SCO, OSCE, OIC and TURKSOY.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 126 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 45.86%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 51.07%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 60 / 194
Central Asia rank: 1 / 5
Central Asia Avg. Ratifications: 90 / 282
Landlocked developing countries rank: 2 / 32
Landlocked developing countries Avg. Ratifications: 86 / 282
Transition economy rank: 19 / 28
Transition economy Avg. Ratifications: 141 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 0/3 0.00% 18.00% 70 Weak
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 1/4 (25.00%) 21.43% 3.00% 1 Strong
Sale of Goods 0/5 0.00% 25.00% 89 Weak
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 1 4.35% 9.00% 132 Weak
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 2/6 (33.33%) 40.00% 26.00% 48 Strong
Exemption from Duties 3/9 (33.33%) 33.33% 30.00% 76 Strong
Temporary Admission 1/11 (9.09%) 14.71% 28.00% 94 Weak
Transit 2/4 (50.00%) 54.55% 28.00% 42 Strong
Total 10 33.70% 31.00% 74 Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 1/6 (16.67%) 25.00% 32.00% 86 Weak
Judicial cooperation 4/5 (80.00%) 73.68% 36.00% 54 Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 0/4 0.00% 14.00% 29 Weak
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 11.00% 1 Strong
Total 6 44.00% 29.00% 49 Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 25.00% 1 Strong
Flora and fauna 5/10 (50.00%) 54.35% 68.00% 152 Weak
Foodstuff 1/2 (50.00%) 37.50% 79.00% 136 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 6/26 (23.08%) 26.09% 46.00% 151 Weak
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 27.00% 1 Strong
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 22 47.92% 61.00% 148 Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 3/4 (75.00%) 50.00% 8.00% 1 Strong
Cheques 0/3 0.00% 13.00% 36 Weak
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 1/3 (33.33%) 27.27% 20.00% 68 Strong
Total 4 19.51% 12.00% 43 Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 2/4 (50.00%) 66.67% 50.00% 34 Strong
Cultural Property 2/4 (50.00%) 50.00% 54.00% 61 Weak
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 80.00% 1 Strong
Total 9 75.00% 68.00% 56 Average
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 8/8 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Total 15 100.00% 91.00% 1 Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 0/1 0.00% 39.00% 77 Weak
International Trade Law 7/10 (70.00%) 70.00% 73.00% 84 Weak
Trade support institutions 4/6 (66.67%) 66.67% 51.00% 56 Strong
Total 11 64.71% 63.00% 79 Weak
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
Copyright 2/3 (66.67%) 90.91% 65.00% 48 Strong
Industrial designs 1/2 (50.00%) 37.50% 31.00% 64 Strong
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 46.00% 1 Strong
Origin 0/3 0.00% 14.00% 51 Weak
Patents 5/5 (100.00%) 100.00% 57.00% 1 Strong
Trademarks 5/6 (83.33%) 95.45% 33.00% 10 Strong
Varieties of plants 0/1 0.00% 37.00% 73 Weak
Total 17 76.84% 42.00% 35 Strong
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 0/1 0.00% 24.00% 48 Weak
Timber 0/1 0.00% 31.00% 61 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 1 38.46% 53.00% 85 Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 3/7 (42.86%) 52.38% 59.00% 110 Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 5/9 (55.56%) 76.00% 74.00% 80 Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 7/13 (53.85%) 71.43% 66.00% 107 Weak
Maritime transport 4/12 (33.33%) 33.33% 27.00% 55 Strong
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 0/3 0.00% 22.00% 50 Weak
Road transport 3/4 (75.00%) 83.33% 31.00% 35 Strong
Space 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 40.00% 1 Strong
Telecommunications 0/2 0.00% 47.00% 114 Weak
Total 26 56.76% 50.00% 73 Strong
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 1/4 (25.00%) 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
Total 1 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 0/2 0.00% 18.00% 45 Weak
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 1 45.45% 47.00% 45 Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Contracts Procurement
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Investments Investment disputes
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
Treaties law General
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Sale of Goods
Contracts Travel contracts
Customs Temporary Admission
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Origin
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Marine Resources
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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