Iran

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Iran (Persian: ایران‎‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn]), also known as Persia (), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 79.92 million inhabitants (as of August 2017), Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh, the Republic of Azerbaijan, and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan; to the north by the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.
Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BC. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BC, and reached its greatest extent during the Achaemenid Empire founded by Cyrus the Great in the sixth century BC, stretching from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming a larger empire than previously ever existed in the world. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, but reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire, followed by the Sasanian Empire, which became a leading world power for the next four centuries.
Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century AD, ultimately leading to the displacement of the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, which followed the country's conversion to Shia Islam, marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. By the 18th century, under Nader Shah, Iran briefly possessed what was arguably the most powerful empire at the time. The 19th-century conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest culminated in the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. Following a coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States in 1953, Iran gradually became closely aligned with the West, and grew increasingly autocratic. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, which followed the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system which includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and financial loss for both sides.
According to international observers, the current Iranian regime (led by Ali Khamenei since 1989) is oppressive, with human rights abuses commonplace. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on July 14, 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium.
Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).


Summary
Instruments ratified: 135 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 38.61%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 42.81%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 102 / 194
Developing country rank: 45 / 87
Developing country Avg. Ratifications: 109 / 282
Southern Asia rank: 2 / 9
Southern Asia Avg. Ratifications: 98 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 1/3 (33.33%) 33.33% 18.00% 33 Strong
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 0/4 0.00% 3.00% 31 Weak
Sale of Goods 0/5 0.00% 25.00% 89 Weak
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 1 7.25% 9.00% 94 Weak
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 3/6 (50.00%) 60.00% 26.00% 4 Strong
Exemption from Duties 6/9 (66.67%) 66.67% 30.00% 23 Strong
Temporary Admission 7/11 (63.64%) 67.65% 28.00% 27 Strong
Transit 3/4 (75.00%) 72.73% 28.00% 17 Strong
Total 21 68.48% 31.00% 25 Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 2/6 (33.33%) 50.00% 32.00% 29 Strong
Judicial cooperation 0/5 0.00% 36.00% 119 Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 0/4 0.00% 14.00% 29 Weak
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 11.00% 1 Strong
Total 3 26.00% 29.00% 86 Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 0/2 0.00% 25.00% 50 Weak
Flora and fauna 7/10 (70.00%) 76.09% 68.00% 46 Strong
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 17/26 (65.38%) 68.48% 46.00% 44 Strong
Protected geographical areas 0/1 0.00% 27.00% 54 Weak
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 33 73.44% 61.00% 43 Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 0/4 0.00% 8.00% 43 Weak
Cheques 0/3 0.00% 13.00% 36 Weak
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 0/3 0.00% 20.00% 75 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 12.00% 117 Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 1/4 (25.00%) 41.67% 50.00% 92 Weak
Cultural Property 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 54.00% 1 Strong
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 0/2 0.00% 80.00% 183 Weak
Total 8 69.23% 68.00% 86 Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 8/8 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Total 15 100.00% 91.00% 1 Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 39.00% 1 Strong
International Trade Law 9/10 (90.00%) 90.00% 73.00% 34 Strong
Trade support institutions 5/6 (83.33%) 83.33% 51.00% 29 Strong
Total 15 88.24% 63.00% 36 Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 0/1 0.00% 47.00% 93 Weak
Copyright 0/3 0.00% 65.00% 172 Weak
Industrial designs 0/2 0.00% 31.00% 82 Weak
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 0/3 0.00% 46.00% 120 Weak
Origin 2/3 (66.67%) 66.67% 14.00% 7 Strong
Patents 2/5 (40.00%) 47.62% 57.00% 87 Weak
Trademarks 2/6 (33.33%) 36.36% 33.00% 68 Average
Varieties of plants 0/1 0.00% 37.00% 73 Weak
Total 6 25.26% 42.00% 124 Weak
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 0/2 0.00% 39.00% 152 Weak
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 1 33.33% 57.00% 148 Weak
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 0/1 0.00% 24.00% 48 Weak
Timber 0/1 0.00% 31.00% 61 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 1 38.46% 53.00% 85 Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 2/7 (28.57%) 38.10% 59.00% 143 Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 5/9 (55.56%) 76.00% 74.00% 80 Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 11/13 (84.62%) 94.29% 66.00% 11 Strong
Maritime transport 4/12 (33.33%) 33.33% 27.00% 55 Strong
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 22.00% 1 Strong
Road transport 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
Space 1/4 (25.00%) 16.67% 40.00% 103 Weak
Telecommunications 1/2 (50.00%) 83.33% 47.00% 26 Strong
Total 31 69.59% 50.00% 34 Strong
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 0/4 0.00% 30.00% 113 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 30.00% 113 Weak
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 0/2 0.00% 18.00% 45 Weak
WTO Agreements 0/1 0.00% 81.00% 159 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 47.00% 159 Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Contracts E-commerce
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Good Governance Cultural Property
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Origin
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
Intellectual property Trademarks
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Sale of Goods
Contracts Travel contracts
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment disputes
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Marine Resources
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
Treaties law General
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
WTO WTO Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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