Hungary

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Hungary (; Hungarian: Magyarország [ˈmɒɟɒrorsaːɡ]) is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. It covers an area of 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi), situated in the Carpathian Basin, and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west, Austria to the northwest, and Ukraine to the northeast. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken Uralic language in the world. Hungary's capital and its largest city and metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, classified as a leading global city. Major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr.
Following centuries of successive habitation by Celts, Romans, West Slavs, Gepids and Avars, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th century by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád in the conquest of the Carpathian Basin. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526 and about 150 years of partial Ottoman occupation (1541–1699), Hungary came under Habsburg rule, and later formed the great power Austro–Hungarian Empire together with Austria.
Hungary's current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades (1947–1989). The country gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary again became a democratic parliamentary republic.
In the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the world's 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 191 countries measured by IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is the world's 35th largest exporter and 34th largest importer of goods. Hungary is an OECD high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a social security and universal health care system, and a tuition-free university education. Hungary performs well in international rankings: it is 20th in quality of life, 24th in Good Country Index, 28th in inequality-adjusted human development, 32nd in the Social Progress Index, 33rd in Global Innovation Index and ranks as the 15th safest country in the world.
Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007. Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group and more. Well known for its rich cultural history, Hungary has contributed significantly to arts, music, literature, sports and science and technology. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe, attracting 14.3 million international tourists in 2015. It is home to the largest thermal water cave system and the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 180 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 62.36%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 68.20%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 19 / 194
Eastern Europe rank: 1 / 10
Eastern Europe Avg. Ratifications: 160 / 282
Europe Union rank: 16 / 28
Europe Union Avg. Ratifications: 180 / 282
Transition economy rank: 2 / 28
Transition economy Avg. Ratifications: 141 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 0/3 0.00% 18.00% 70 Weak
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 5.00% 1 Strong
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 0/4 0.00% 3.00% 31 Weak
Sale of Goods 3/5 (60.00%) 81.82% 25.00% 2 Strong
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 5 21.74% 9.00% 12 Strong
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 2/6 (33.33%) 40.00% 26.00% 48 Strong
Exemption from Duties 5/9 (55.56%) 62.96% 30.00% 37 Strong
Temporary Admission 9/11 (81.82%) 91.18% 28.00% 9 Strong
Transit 3/4 (75.00%) 100.00% 28.00% 1 Strong
Total 21 76.09% 31.00% 16 Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 3/6 (50.00%) 65.00% 32.00% 6 Strong
Judicial cooperation 4/5 (80.00%) 84.21% 36.00% 27 Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 1/4 (25.00%) 100.00% 14.00% 1 Strong
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 0/1 0.00% 11.00% 22 Weak
Total 8 68.00% 29.00% 10 Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 5/5 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 25.00% 1 Strong
Flora and fauna 6/10 (60.00%) 65.22% 68.00% 91 Weak
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 18.00% 1 Strong
Maritime and Law of the Sea 13/26 (50.00%) 61.96% 46.00% 61 Strong
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 27.00% 1 Strong
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 33 73.44% 61.00% 43 Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 3/4 (75.00%) 50.00% 8.00% 1 Strong
Cheques 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 13.00% 1 Strong
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 0/3 0.00% 20.00% 75 Weak
Total 6 24.39% 12.00% 32 Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 3/4 (75.00%) 75.00% 50.00% 6 Strong
Cultural Property 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 54.00% 1 Strong
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 80.00% 1 Strong
Total 12 92.31% 68.00% 2 Strong
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 8/8 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Total 15 100.00% 91.00% 1 Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 0/1 0.00% 39.00% 77 Weak
International Trade Law 10/10 (100.00%) 100.00% 73.00% 1 Strong
Trade support institutions 4/6 (66.67%) 66.67% 51.00% 56 Strong
Total 14 82.35% 63.00% 46 Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
Copyright 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 65.00% 1 Strong
Industrial designs 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 46.00% 1 Strong
Origin 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 14.00% 1 Strong
Patents 4/5 (80.00%) 85.71% 57.00% 30 Strong
Trademarks 4/6 (66.67%) 72.73% 33.00% 36 Strong
Varieties of plants 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 37.00% 1 Strong
Total 21 89.47% 42.00% 9 Strong
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 0/1 0.00% 24.00% 48 Weak
Timber 0/1 0.00% 31.00% 61 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 1 38.46% 53.00% 85 Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 5/7 (71.43%) 90.48% 59.00% 4 Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 6/9 (66.67%) 88.00% 74.00% 37 Strong
Maritime shipping and load lines 11/13 (84.62%) 88.57% 66.00% 50 Strong
Maritime transport 5/12 (41.67%) 45.83% 27.00% 22 Strong
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 22.00% 1 Strong
Road transport 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
Space 3/4 (75.00%) 83.33% 40.00% 16 Strong
Telecommunications 1/2 (50.00%) 83.33% 47.00% 26 Strong
Total 38 82.43% 50.00% 6 Strong
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 2/4 (50.00%) 66.67% 30.00% 11 Strong
Total 2 66.67% 30.00% 11 Strong
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 18.00% 26 Strong
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 2 72.73% 47.00% 26 Strong
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Sale of Goods
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Origin
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment disputes
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
Treaties law General
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Travel contracts
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products General
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Marine Resources
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Instruments ratifications

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