Haiti

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Haiti ( ( listen); French: Haïti [a.iti]; Haitian Creole: Ayiti [ajiti]), officially the Republic of Haiti (French: République d'Haïti; Haitian Creole: Repiblik Ayiti) and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.
The region was originally inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain discovered the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic. When Columbus initially landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or Asia. On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus' flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade. As a consequence, Columbus ordered his men to salvage what they could from the ship, and he created the first European settlement in the Americas, naming it La Navidad after the day the ship was destroyed.
The island was named La Española and claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century. Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France, which named it Saint-Domingue. Sugarcane plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa, were established by colonists.
In the midst of the French Revolution (1789–1799), slaves and free people of colour revolted in the Haitian Revolution (1791–1804), culminating in the abolition of slavery and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte's army at the Battle of Vertières. Afterward the sovereign nation of Haiti was established on 1 January 1804 – the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, the only nation in the western hemisphere to have defeated three European great powers (France, Spain, and the UK), and the only nation in the world established as a result of a successful slave revolt. The rebellion that began in 1791 was led by a former slave and the first black general of the French Army, Toussaint Louverture, whose military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into an independent country. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's sovereignty and later became the first Emperor of Haiti, Jacques I. The Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years; and apart from Alexandre Pétion, the first President of the Republic, all the first leaders of government were former slaves. The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas. Henri Christophe – former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I – built it to withstand a possible foreign attack.
It is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States (OAS), Association of Caribbean States, and the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. It has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Most recently, in February 2004, a coup d'état originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH).


Summary
Instruments ratified: 72 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 32.06%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 35.86%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 136 / 194
Caribbean rank: 10 / 13
Caribbean Avg. Ratifications: 100 / 282
Least developed countries rank: 22 / 48
Least developed countries Avg. Ratifications: 79 / 282
Small island developing States rank: 16 / 37
Small island developing States Avg. Ratifications: 86 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce0/30.00%18.00%70Weak
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement0/40.00%3.00%31Weak
Sale of Goods0/50.00%25.00%89Weak
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total00.00%9.00%145Weak
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification3/3 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation1/6 (16.67%)0.00%26.00%117Weak
Exemption from Duties5/9 (55.56%)62.96%30.00%37Strong
Temporary Admission2/11 (18.18%)14.71%28.00%94Weak
Transit0/40.00%28.00%98Weak
Total1129.35%31.00%88Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration1/6 (16.67%)25.00%32.00%86Weak
Judicial cooperation0/50.00%36.00%119Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction0/40.00%14.00%29Weak
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
Total110.00%29.00%132Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Chemicals0/10.00%78.00%152Weak
Energy0/20.00%25.00%50Weak
Flora and fauna3/10 (30.00%)32.61%68.00%185Weak
Foodstuff1/2 (50.00%)37.50%79.00%136Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea2/26 (7.69%)8.70%46.00%158Weak
Protected geographical areas 0/10.00%27.00%54Weak
Waste0/10.00%93.00%181Weak
Total1126.56%61.00%188Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees0/30.00%20.00%75Weak
Total00.00%12.00%117Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption1/4 (25.00%)41.67%50.00%92Weak
Cultural Property3/4 (75.00%)68.75%54.00%38Strong
Drugs2/3 (66.67%)66.67%95.00%180Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime2/2 (100.00%)100.00%80.00%1Strong
Total865.38%68.00%118Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights7/7 (100.00%)100.00%96.00%1Weak
Labour Standards8/8 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Total15100.00%91.00%1Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution0/10.00%39.00%77Weak
International Trade Law 6/10 (60.00%)60.00%73.00%126Weak
Trade support institutions1/6 (16.67%)16.67%51.00%146Weak
Total741.18%63.00%148Weak
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting0/10.00%47.00%93Weak
Copyright1/3 (33.33%)45.45%65.00%112Weak
Industrial designs0/20.00%31.00%82Weak
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights0/30.00%46.00%120Weak
Origin1/3 (33.33%)33.33%14.00%24Strong
Patents1/5 (20.00%)23.81%57.00%153Weak
Trademarks0/60.00%33.00%124Weak
Varieties of plants0/10.00%37.00%73Weak
Total313.68%42.00%160Weak
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes1/2 (50.00%)50.00%39.00%2Strong
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total266.67%57.00%2Strong
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber0/10.00%31.00%61Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total138.46%53.00%85Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport0/70.00%59.00%181Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 6/9 (66.67%)72.00%74.00%129Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 5/13 (38.46%)48.57%66.00%157Weak
Maritime transport0/120.00%27.00%180Weak
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport0/30.00%22.00%50Weak
Road transport0/40.00%31.00%86Weak
Space0/40.00%40.00%120Weak
Telecommunications0/20.00%47.00%114Weak
Total1123.65%50.00%173Weak
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General1/4 (25.00%)41.67%30.00%41Strong
Total141.67%30.00%41Strong
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements0/20.00%18.00%45Weak
WTO Agreements1/1 (100.00%)100.00%81.00%1Strong
Total145.45%47.00%45Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
CustomsCustoms Codification
CustomsExemption from Duties
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Intellectual propertyOrigin
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOWTO Agreements
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsProcurement
ContractsSale of Goods
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsTemporary Admission
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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