Ethiopia

Wikipedia Country Information

Ethiopia (; Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ?, ʾĪtyōṗṗyā, listen ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk listen ) is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north and northeast, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. With over 100 million inhabitants, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world, as well as the second-most populous nation on the African continent. It occupies a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi), and its capital and largest city is Addis Ababa.
Some of the oldest evidence for anatomically modern humans has been found in Ethiopia. It is widely considered as the region from which modern humans first set out for the Middle East and places beyond. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations settled in the Horn region during the ensuing Neolithic era. Tracing its roots to the 2nd millennium BC, Ethiopia's governmental system was a monarchy for most of its history. In the first centuries AD, the Kingdom of Aksum maintained a unified civilization in the region, followed by the Ethiopian Empire circa 1137. During the late 19th-century Scramble for Africa, Ethiopia was the only territory in Africa to defeat a European colonial power and retain its sovereignty. Many newly-independent nations on the continent subsequently adopted its flag colours. Ethiopia was also the first independent member from Africa of the 20th-century League of Nations and the United Nations. In 1974, the Ethiopian monarchy under Haile Selassie was overthrown by the Derg, a communist military government backed by the Soviet Union. In 1987, the Derg established the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, but it was overthrown in 1991 by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, which has been the ruling political coalition since.
Ethiopia's ancient Ge'ez script (Ethiopic script) is one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world. The Ethiopian calendar, which is approximately seven years and three months behind the Gregorian calendar, co-exists alongside the Borana calendar. A majority of the population adheres to Christianity (mainly the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and P'ent'ay), whereas around a third follows Islam (primarily Sunni). The country is the site of the Migration to Abyssinia and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. A substantial population of Ethiopian Jews, known as Bete Israel, also resided in Ethiopia until the 1980s. Ethiopia is a multilingual nation with around 80 ethnolinguistic groups, the four largest of which are the Oromo, Amhara, Somali and Tigrayans. Most people in the country speak Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic or Semitic branches. Additionally, Omotic languages are spoken by ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Nilo-Saharan languages are also spoken by the nation's Nilotic ethnic minorities.
Ethiopia is the place of origin of the coffee bean, which was first cultivated at Kefa, one of the 14 provinces in the old Ethiopian administration. It is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile west, jungles, and numerous rivers, and the world's hottest settlement of Dallol in its north. The Ethiopian Highlands are the largest continuous mountain ranges in Africa, and the Sof Omar Caves contains the largest cave on the continent. Ethiopia also has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa. Additionally, the country is one of the founding members of the UN, the Group of 24 (G-24), the Non-Aligned Movement, G-77 and the Organisation of African Unity. Its capital city Addis Ababa serves as the headquarters of the African Union, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, the African Standby Force, and many of the global NGOs focused on Africa. In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethiopia experienced civil conflicts and communist purges, which hindered its economy. The country has since recovered and now has the largest economy (by GDP) in East and Central Africa. According to Global Fire Power, Ethiopia also has the 41st most powerful military in the world, and the third most powerful in Africa.


Instruments ratified: 74 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 27.43%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 29.93%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 169 / 194
Eastern Africa rank: 14 / 17
Eastern Africa Avg. Ratifications: 84 / 282
Landlocked developing countries rank: 27 / 32
Landlocked developing countries Avg. Ratifications: 86 / 282
Least developed countries rank: 35 / 48
Least developed countries Avg. Ratifications: 79 / 282
CONTRACTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Agency0/20.00%2.00%8Weak
Conflict of laws0/70.00%3.00%27Weak
E-commerce0/30.00%18.00%70Weak
Franchising0/10.00%0.00%1Average
Leasing/Factoring0/20.00%5.00%13Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards0/20.00%0.00%1Average
Procurement0/40.00%3.00%31Weak
Sale of Goods0/50.00%25.00%89Weak
Travel contracts0/10.00%3.00%7Weak
Total00.00%9.00%145Weak
 
CUSTOMSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Customs Codification2/3 (66.67%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Customs Cooperation0/60.00%26.00%117Weak
Exemption from Duties0/90.00%30.00%133Weak
Temporary Admission0/110.00%28.00%126Weak
Transit0/40.00%28.00%98Weak
Total25.43%31.00%151Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Arbitration0/60.00%32.00%157Weak
Judicial cooperation0/50.00%36.00%119Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments0/20.00%2.00%6Weak
State court jurisdiction0/40.00%14.00%29Weak
State court procedure0/10.00%6.00%12Weak
State immunities 0/10.00%11.00%22Weak
Total00.00%29.00%171Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air4/5 (80.00%)80.00%86.00%59Weak
Chemicals1/1 (100.00%)100.00%78.00%1Strong
Energy0/20.00%25.00%50Weak
Flora and fauna6/10 (60.00%)65.22%68.00%91Weak
Foodstuff2/2 (100.00%)100.00%79.00%1Strong
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
International watercourses0/10.00%18.00%36Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea2/26 (7.69%)10.87%46.00%157Weak
Protected geographical areas 0/10.00%27.00%54Weak
Waste1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total1743.23%61.00%156Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Assignment of receivables0/10.00%1.00%2Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency0/10.00%21.00%41Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes0/40.00%8.00%43Weak
Cheques0/30.00%13.00%36Weak
Credit transfers0/10.00%0.00%1Average
International guarantees2/3 (66.67%)54.55%20.00%5Strong
Total214.63%12.00%52Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Corruption1/4 (25.00%)41.67%50.00%92Weak
Cultural Property1/4 (25.00%)31.25%54.00%142Weak
Drugs3/3 (100.00%)100.00%95.00%1Weak
Insider Trading0/10.00%4.00%9Weak
Organized crime2/2 (100.00%)100.00%80.00%1Strong
Total763.46%68.00%123Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Human Rights7/7 (100.00%)100.00%96.00%1Weak
Labour Standards8/8 (100.00%)100.00%86.00%1Strong
Total15100.00%91.00%1Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATIONInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Dispute Resolution0/10.00%39.00%77Weak
International Trade Law 7/10 (70.00%)70.00%73.00%84Weak
Trade support institutions2/6 (33.33%)33.33%51.00%114Weak
Total952.94%63.00%108Weak
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Broadcasting0/10.00%47.00%93Weak
Copyright0/30.00%65.00%172Weak
Industrial designs0/20.00%31.00%82Weak
Integrated circuits0/10.00%2.00%4Weak
Neighboring Rights0/30.00%46.00%120Weak
Origin0/30.00%14.00%51Weak
Patents0/50.00%57.00%177Weak
Trademarks0/60.00%33.00%124Weak
Varieties of plants0/10.00%37.00%73Weak
Total00.00%42.00%181Weak
 
INVESTMENTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Investment disputes0/20.00%39.00%152Weak
Investment guaranty1/1 (100.00%)100.00%93.00%1Weak
Total133.33%57.00%148Weak
 
PRODUCTSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Marine Resources0/10.00%24.00%48Weak
Timber0/10.00%31.00%61Weak
General1/1 (100.00%)100.00%92.00%1Weak
Total138.46%53.00%85Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONSInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Air transport3/7 (42.86%)61.90%59.00%95Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 7/9 (77.78%)92.00%74.00%11Strong
Maritime shipping and load lines 7/13 (53.85%)65.71%66.00%130Weak
Maritime transport2/12 (16.67%)16.67%27.00%135Weak
Multi modal transport 0/20.00%4.00%15Weak
Rail transport0/30.00%22.00%50Weak
Road transport0/40.00%31.00%86Weak
Space0/40.00%40.00%120Weak
Telecommunications0/20.00%47.00%114Weak
Total1942.57%50.00%127Weak
 
TREATIES LAWInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
General1/4 (25.00%)25.00%30.00%109Weak
Total125.00%30.00%109Weak
 
WTOInst. ratifiedCountry scoreWorld avg. scoreCountry rank in worldStrength
Plurilateral Agreements0/20.00%18.00%45Weak
WTO Agreements0/10.00%81.00%159Weak
Total00.00%47.00%159Weak
 
Strong
CustomsCustoms Codification
Environment and productsChemicals
Environment and productsFoodstuff
Finance, payments and insolvencyInternational guarantees
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour StandardsLabour Standards
Transport and telecommunicationsAircrafts and civil aviation
 
Average
ContractsFranchising
ContractsPrinciples, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvencyCredit transfers
 
Weak
ContractsAgency
ContractsConflict of laws
ContractsE-commerce
ContractsLeasing/Factoring
ContractsProcurement
ContractsSale of Goods
ContractsTravel contracts
CustomsCustoms Cooperation
CustomsExemption from Duties
CustomsTemporary Admission
CustomsTransit
Dispute resolutionArbitration
Dispute resolutionJudicial cooperation
Dispute resolutionRecognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolutionState court jurisdiction
Dispute resolutionState court procedure
Dispute resolutionState immunities
Environment and productsAir
Environment and productsEnergy
Environment and productsFlora and fauna
Environment and productsGeneral
Environment and productsInternational watercourses
Environment and productsMaritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and productsProtected geographical areas
Environment and productsWaste
Finance, payments and insolvencyAssignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvencyBankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvencyBills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvencyCheques
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour StandardsHuman rights
Institutional ParticipationDispute Resolution
Institutional ParticipationInternational Trade Law
Institutional ParticipationTrade support institutions
Intellectual propertyBroadcasting
Intellectual propertyCopyright
Intellectual propertyIndustrial designs
Intellectual propertyIntegrated circuits
Intellectual propertyNeighboring Rights
Intellectual propertyOrigin
Intellectual propertyPatents
Intellectual propertyTrademarks
Intellectual propertyVarieties of plants
InvestmentsInvestment disputes
InvestmentsInvestment guaranty
ProductsGeneral
ProductsMarine Resources
ProductsTimber
Transport and telecommunicationsAir transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunicationsMaritime transport
Transport and telecommunicationsMulti modal transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRail transport
Transport and telecommunicationsRoad transport
Transport and telecommunicationsSpace
Transport and telecommunicationsTelecommunications
Treaties lawGeneral
WTOPlurilateral Agreements
WTOWTO Agreements

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