Ethiopia

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Ethiopia (; Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ?, ʾĪtyōṗṗyā, listen ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk listen ), is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north and northeast, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. With over 102 million inhabitants, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world, as well as the second-most populous nation on the African continent. It occupies a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi), and its capital and largest city is Addis Ababa.
Some of the oldest skeletal evidence for anatomically modern humans has been found in Ethiopia. It is widely considered as the region from which modern humans first set out for the Middle East and places beyond. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations settled in the Horn region during the ensuing Neolithic era. Tracing its roots to the 2nd millennium BC, Ethiopia's governmental system was a monarchy for most of its history. In the first centuries AD, the Kingdom of Aksum maintained a unified civilization in the region, followed by the Ethiopian Empire circa 1137. During the late 19th-century Scramble for Africa, Ethiopia was one of the nations to retain its sovereignty and the only territory in Africa to defeat a European colonial power. Many newly-independent nations on the continent subsequently adopted its flag colours. Ethiopia was also the first independent member from Africa of the 20th-century League of Nations and the United Nations. In 1974, the Ethiopian monarchy under Haile Selassie was overthrown by the Derg, a communist military government backed by the Soviet Union. In 1987, the Derg established the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, but it was overthrown in 1991 by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, which has been the ruling political coalition since.
Ethiopia's ancient Ge'ez script (Ethiopic script) is one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world. The Ethiopian calendar, which is approximately seven years and three months behind the Gregorian calendar, co-exists alongside the Borana calendar. A majority of the population adheres to Christianity (mainly the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and P'ent'ay), whereas around a third follows Islam (primarily Sunni). The country is the site of the Migration to Abyssinia and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. A substantial population of Ethiopian Jews, known as Bete Israel, also resided in Ethiopia until the 1980s. Ethiopia is a multilingual nation with around 80 ethnolinguistic groups, the four largest of which are the Oromo, Amhara, Somali and Tigrayans. Most people in the country speak Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic or Semitic branches. Additionally, Omotic languages are spoken by ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Nilo-Saharan languages are also spoken by the nation's Nilotic ethnic minorities.
Ethiopia is the place of origin of the coffee bean, which was first cultivated at Kefa, one of the 14 provinces in the old Ethiopian administration. It is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile west, jungles, and numerous rivers, and the world's hottest settlement of Dallol in its north. The Ethiopian Highlands are the largest continuous mountain ranges in Africa, and the Sof Omar Caves contains the largest cave on the continent. Ethiopia also has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa. Additionally, the country is one of the founding members of the UN, the Group of 24 (G-24), the Non-Aligned Movement, G-77 and the Organisation of African Unity. Its capital city Addis Ababa serves as the headquarters of the African Union, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, the African Standby Force, and many of the global NGOs focused on Africa. In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethiopia experienced civil conflicts and communist purges, which hindered its economy. The country has since recovered and now has the largest economy (by GDP) in East and Central Africa. According to Global Fire Power, Ethiopia also has the 41st most powerful military in the world, and the third most powerful in Africa.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 74 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 27.43%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 29.93%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 169 / 194
Eastern Africa rank: 14 / 17
Eastern Africa Avg. Ratifications: 84 / 282
Landlocked developing countries rank: 27 / 32
Landlocked developing countries Avg. Ratifications: 86 / 282
Least developed countries rank: 35 / 48
Least developed countries Avg. Ratifications: 79 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 0/3 0.00% 18.00% 70 Weak
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 0/4 0.00% 3.00% 31 Weak
Sale of Goods 0/5 0.00% 25.00% 89 Weak
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 9.00% 145 Weak
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 0/6 0.00% 26.00% 117 Weak
Exemption from Duties 0/9 0.00% 30.00% 133 Weak
Temporary Admission 0/11 0.00% 28.00% 126 Weak
Transit 0/4 0.00% 28.00% 98 Weak
Total 2 5.43% 31.00% 151 Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 0/6 0.00% 32.00% 157 Weak
Judicial cooperation 0/5 0.00% 36.00% 119 Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 0/4 0.00% 14.00% 29 Weak
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 0/1 0.00% 11.00% 22 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 29.00% 171 Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 0/2 0.00% 25.00% 50 Weak
Flora and fauna 6/10 (60.00%) 65.22% 68.00% 91 Weak
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 2/26 (7.69%) 10.87% 46.00% 157 Weak
Protected geographical areas 0/1 0.00% 27.00% 54 Weak
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 17 43.23% 61.00% 156 Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 0/4 0.00% 8.00% 43 Weak
Cheques 0/3 0.00% 13.00% 36 Weak
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 2/3 (66.67%) 54.55% 20.00% 5 Strong
Total 2 14.63% 12.00% 52 Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 1/4 (25.00%) 41.67% 50.00% 92 Weak
Cultural Property 1/4 (25.00%) 31.25% 54.00% 142 Weak
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 80.00% 1 Strong
Total 7 63.46% 68.00% 123 Weak
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 8/8 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Total 15 100.00% 91.00% 1 Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 0/1 0.00% 39.00% 77 Weak
International Trade Law 7/10 (70.00%) 70.00% 73.00% 84 Weak
Trade support institutions 2/6 (33.33%) 33.33% 51.00% 114 Weak
Total 9 52.94% 63.00% 108 Weak
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 0/1 0.00% 47.00% 93 Weak
Copyright 0/3 0.00% 65.00% 172 Weak
Industrial designs 0/2 0.00% 31.00% 82 Weak
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 0/3 0.00% 46.00% 120 Weak
Origin 0/3 0.00% 14.00% 51 Weak
Patents 0/5 0.00% 57.00% 177 Weak
Trademarks 0/6 0.00% 33.00% 124 Weak
Varieties of plants 0/1 0.00% 37.00% 73 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 42.00% 181 Weak
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 0/2 0.00% 39.00% 152 Weak
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 1 33.33% 57.00% 148 Weak
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 0/1 0.00% 24.00% 48 Weak
Timber 0/1 0.00% 31.00% 61 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 1 38.46% 53.00% 85 Weak
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 3/7 (42.86%) 61.90% 59.00% 95 Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 7/9 (77.78%) 92.00% 74.00% 11 Strong
Maritime shipping and load lines 7/13 (53.85%) 65.71% 66.00% 130 Weak
Maritime transport 2/12 (16.67%) 16.67% 27.00% 135 Weak
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 0/3 0.00% 22.00% 50 Weak
Road transport 0/4 0.00% 31.00% 86 Weak
Space 0/4 0.00% 40.00% 120 Weak
Telecommunications 0/2 0.00% 47.00% 114 Weak
Total 19 42.57% 50.00% 127 Weak
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 1/4 (25.00%) 25.00% 30.00% 109 Weak
Total 1 25.00% 30.00% 109 Weak
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 0/2 0.00% 18.00% 45 Weak
WTO Agreements 0/1 0.00% 81.00% 159 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 47.00% 159 Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Customs Customs Codification
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Foodstuff
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Sale of Goods
Contracts Travel contracts
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Origin
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment disputes
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Marine Resources
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
Treaties law General
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
WTO WTO Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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