Colombia

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Colombia ( kə-LUM-biə or kə-LOM-biə; Spanish: [koˈlombja]), officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: República de Colombia ), is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru. It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples, with as most advanced the Muisca, Quimbaya and the Tairona.
The Spanish set foot on Colombian soil for the first time in 1499 and in the first half of the 16th century initiated a period of conquest and colonization, ultimately creating the New Kingdom of Granada, with as capital Santafé de Bogotá. Independence from Spain was acquired in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Since the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, which escalated in the 1990s but then decreased from 2005 onward. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. The urban centres are mostly located in the highlands of the Andes mountains.
Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, it is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, and other international organizations. Colombia has a diversified economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 114 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 45.10%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 52.85%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 60 / 194
Developing country rank: 18 / 87
Developing country Avg. Ratifications: 109 / 282
South America rank: 4 / 13
South America Avg. Ratifications: 111 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 2/3 (66.67%) 66.67% 18.00% 2 Strong
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 0/4 0.00% 3.00% 31 Weak
Sale of Goods 1/5 (20.00%) 45.45% 25.00% 29 Strong
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 3 21.74% 9.00% 12 Strong
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 0/6 0.00% 26.00% 117 Weak
Exemption from Duties 0/9 0.00% 30.00% 133 Weak
Temporary Admission 0/11 0.00% 28.00% 126 Weak
Transit 0/4 0.00% 28.00% 98 Weak
Total 2 5.43% 31.00% 151 Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 1/6 (16.67%) 25.00% 32.00% 86 Weak
Judicial cooperation 3/5 (60.00%) 78.95% 36.00% 42 Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 0/4 0.00% 14.00% 29 Weak
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 0/1 0.00% 11.00% 22 Weak
Total 4 40.00% 29.00% 56 Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 0/2 0.00% 25.00% 50 Weak
Flora and fauna 6/10 (60.00%) 65.22% 68.00% 91 Weak
Foodstuff 1/2 (50.00%) 37.50% 79.00% 136 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 12/26 (46.15%) 50.00% 46.00% 92 Weak
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 27.00% 1 Strong
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 27 60.94% 61.00% 105 Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 21.00% 1 Strong
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 0/4 0.00% 8.00% 43 Weak
Cheques 0/3 0.00% 13.00% 36 Weak
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 2/3 (66.67%) 54.55% 20.00% 5 Strong
Total 3 26.83% 12.00% 16 Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 2/4 (50.00%) 50.00% 50.00% 82 Weak
Cultural Property 3/4 (75.00%) 81.25% 54.00% 21 Strong
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 1/2 (50.00%) 62.50% 80.00% 112 Weak
Total 9 75.00% 68.00% 56 Average
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 8/8 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Total 15 100.00% 91.00% 1 Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 39.00% 1 Strong
International Trade Law 8/10 (80.00%) 80.00% 73.00% 56 Average
Trade support institutions 4/6 (66.67%) 66.67% 51.00% 56 Strong
Total 13 76.47% 63.00% 61 Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
Copyright 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 65.00% 1 Strong
Industrial designs 0/2 0.00% 31.00% 82 Weak
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 46.00% 1 Strong
Origin 0/3 0.00% 14.00% 51 Weak
Patents 2/5 (40.00%) 47.62% 57.00% 87 Weak
Trademarks 2/6 (33.33%) 45.45% 33.00% 61 Strong
Varieties of plants 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 37.00% 1 Strong
Total 12 56.84% 42.00% 60 Strong
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 0/1 0.00% 24.00% 48 Weak
Timber 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 76.92% 53.00% 23 Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 5/7 (71.43%) 90.48% 59.00% 4 Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 4/9 (44.44%) 56.00% 74.00% 151 Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 7/13 (53.85%) 71.43% 66.00% 107 Weak
Maritime transport 1/12 (8.33%) 12.50% 27.00% 143 Weak
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 0/3 0.00% 22.00% 50 Weak
Road transport 0/4 0.00% 31.00% 86 Weak
Space 1/4 (25.00%) 16.67% 40.00% 103 Weak
Telecommunications 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
Total 20 45.95% 50.00% 115 Weak
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 1/4 (25.00%) 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
Total 1 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 0/2 0.00% 18.00% 45 Weak
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 1 45.45% 47.00% 45 Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Sale of Goods
Customs Customs Codification
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Cultural Property
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Trademarks
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment disputes
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
Treaties law General
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Travel contracts
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Origin
Intellectual property Patents
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Marine Resources
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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