Democratic Republic of the Congo

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (; French pronunciation: ​[kɔ̃ɡo]; French: République démocratique du Congo), also known as Zaire, DR Congo, East Congo, DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa. The DRC borders the Central African Republic and South Sudan to the north; Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania to the east; Zambia and Angola to the south; the Republic of the Congo to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest. It is the second-largest country in Africa (largest in Sub-Saharan Africa) by area and eleventh largest in the world. With a population of over 78 million, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most populated officially Francophone country, the fourth most-populated nation in Africa and the seventeenth most populated country in the world.
The territory of the DR Congo was first settled by humans around 90,000 years ago. Bantu peoples began migrating into the region in the 5th century and again in the 10th century. In the West of the region, the Kingdom of Kongo ruled from the 14th to 19th centuries, while in the centre and East of the region, the kingdoms of Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th centuries to the 19th century. In the 1870s, just before the onset of the Scramble for Africa, European exploration of the Congo was carried out, first led by Henry Morton Stanley under the sponsorship of King Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Conference of Berlin in 1885 and made the land his private property, naming it the Congo Free State. During the Free State, the colonial military unit, the Force Publique, forced the local population into producing rubber, and from 1885 to 1908, millions of Congolese died as a consequence of disease and exploitation. In 1908 Belgium, despite initial reluctance, formally annexed the Free State from Leopold, which became the Belgian Congo.
The Belgian Congo achieved independence on 30 June 1960 under the name Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville). Congolese nationalist Patrice Lumumba was elected the first Prime Minister, while Joseph Kasa-Vubu became the first President. Conflict arose over the administration of the territory which became known as the Congo Crisis. The provinces of Katanga, under Moïse Tshombe, and South Kasai attempted to secede from the Congo. On 5 September 1960, Kasa-Vubu dismissed Lumumba from office, encouraged by the United States and Belgium after Lumumba turned to the Soviet Union for assistance in the crisis. On 14 September, with U.S. and Belgian support, Lumumba was arrested by forces loyal to Army Chief of Staff Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, who had gained de facto control over the country through a coup d'état the same day, and on 17 January 1961 Lumumba was handed over to Katangan authorities and executed by Belgian-led Katangese troops.
In 1965 Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, who later renamed himself Mobutu Sese Seko, officially came into power through a second coup. In 1971 he renamed the country Zaire. The country was run as a one-party state with his Popular Movement of the Revolution as the sole legal party. Mobutu's government received considerable support from the United States, due to its anti-communist stance during the Cold War. By the early 1990s, Mobutu's government began to weaken. Disenfranchisement among the eastern Congolese Tutsi population led to a 1996 invasion led by Tutsi-ruled Rwanda, which began the First Congo War. The war led to the end of Mobutu's 32-year rule, and on 17 May 1997 Laurent-Désiré Kabila, a leader of Tutsi forces from the province of South Kivu, became President, reverting the country's name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Tensions between President Kabila and the Rwandan and Tutsi presence in the country led to the Second Congo War from 1998 to 2003. Ultimately, nine African countries and around twenty armed groups became involved in the war, which resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. The two wars devastated the country. President Laurent-Désiré Kabila was assassinated by one of his bodyguards on 16 January 2001 and was succeeded eight days later as President by his son Joseph Kabila.
The Democratic Republic of Congo is extremely rich in natural resources but has had political instability, a lack of infrastructure, issues with corruption and centuries of both commercial and colonial extraction and exploitation with little holistic development. Besides the capital Kinshasa, the two next largest cities Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi are both mining communities. DR Congo's largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting over 50% of DRC's exports in 2012. As of 2016, DR Congo's level of human development is 176th out of 187 countries, according to the Human Development Index.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 82 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 37.03%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 42.77%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 107 / 194
Least developed countries rank: 6 / 48
Least developed countries Avg. Ratifications: 79 / 282
Middle Africa rank: 4 / 9
Middle Africa Avg. Ratifications: 85 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 0/3 0.00% 18.00% 70 Weak
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 0/4 0.00% 3.00% 31 Weak
Sale of Goods 0/5 0.00% 25.00% 89 Weak
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 0 0.00% 9.00% 145 Weak
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 1/6 (16.67%) 20.00% 26.00% 107 Weak
Exemption from Duties 2/9 (22.22%) 22.22% 30.00% 92 Weak
Temporary Admission 0/11 0.00% 28.00% 126 Weak
Transit 0/4 0.00% 28.00% 98 Weak
Total 6 15.22% 31.00% 122 Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 1/6 (16.67%) 25.00% 32.00% 86 Weak
Judicial cooperation 0/5 0.00% 36.00% 119 Weak
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 0/4 0.00% 14.00% 29 Weak
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 0/1 0.00% 11.00% 22 Weak
Total 1 10.00% 29.00% 132 Weak
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 0/2 0.00% 25.00% 50 Weak
Flora and fauna 7/10 (70.00%) 76.09% 68.00% 46 Strong
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 2/26 (7.69%) 8.70% 46.00% 158 Weak
Protected geographical areas 0/1 0.00% 27.00% 54 Weak
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 18 44.79% 61.00% 152 Weak
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 21.00% 1 Strong
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 0/4 0.00% 8.00% 43 Weak
Cheques 0/3 0.00% 13.00% 36 Weak
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 0/3 0.00% 20.00% 75 Weak
Total 1 12.20% 12.00% 85 Weak
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 2/4 (50.00%) 66.67% 50.00% 34 Strong
Cultural Property 3/4 (75.00%) 68.75% 54.00% 38 Strong
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 80.00% 1 Strong
Total 10 80.77% 68.00% 35 Strong
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 8/8 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Total 15 100.00% 91.00% 1 Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 0/1 0.00% 39.00% 77 Weak
International Trade Law 7/10 (70.00%) 70.00% 73.00% 84 Weak
Trade support institutions 2/6 (33.33%) 33.33% 51.00% 114 Weak
Total 9 52.94% 63.00% 108 Weak
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 0/1 0.00% 47.00% 93 Weak
Copyright 1/3 (33.33%) 45.45% 65.00% 112 Weak
Industrial designs 0/2 0.00% 31.00% 82 Weak
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 1/3 (33.33%) 23.08% 46.00% 114 Weak
Origin 0/3 0.00% 14.00% 51 Weak
Patents 1/5 (20.00%) 23.81% 57.00% 153 Weak
Trademarks 0/6 0.00% 33.00% 124 Weak
Varieties of plants 0/1 0.00% 37.00% 73 Weak
Total 3 13.68% 42.00% 160 Weak
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 0/1 0.00% 24.00% 48 Weak
Timber 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 76.92% 53.00% 23 Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 2/7 (28.57%) 47.62% 59.00% 137 Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 4/9 (44.44%) 56.00% 74.00% 151 Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 4/13 (30.77%) 57.14% 66.00% 151 Weak
Maritime transport 1/12 (8.33%) 12.50% 27.00% 143 Weak
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 0/3 0.00% 22.00% 50 Weak
Road transport 2/4 (50.00%) 55.56% 31.00% 48 Strong
Space 0/4 0.00% 40.00% 120 Weak
Telecommunications 0/2 0.00% 47.00% 114 Weak
Total 13 38.51% 50.00% 138 Weak
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 1/4 (25.00%) 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
Total 1 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 0/2 0.00% 18.00% 45 Weak
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 1 45.45% 47.00% 45 Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Customs Customs Codification
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products Foodstuff
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Investments Investment disputes
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Treaties law General
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Sale of Goods
Contracts Travel contracts
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Origin
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Marine Resources
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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