China

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau, also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.
China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty. Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In 1912, the Republic of China (ROC) replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist People's Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. The Communist Party established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 21 September 1949, while the ROC government retreated to Taiwan with its present de facto capital in Taipei. Both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory.
Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing. As of 2016, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council in 1971. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the BCIM and the G20.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 142 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 52.65%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 59.03%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 42 / 194
Developing country rank: 6 / 87
Developing country Avg. Ratifications: 109 / 282
Eastern Asia rank: 3 / 5
Eastern Asia Avg. Ratifications: 135 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 2/3 (66.67%) 66.67% 18.00% 2 Strong
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 1/4 (25.00%) 21.43% 3.00% 1 Strong
Sale of Goods 1/5 (20.00%) 45.45% 25.00% 29 Strong
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 4 26.09% 9.00% 8 Strong
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 1/6 (16.67%) 33.33% 26.00% 71 Strong
Exemption from Duties 1/9 (11.11%) 11.11% 30.00% 109 Weak
Temporary Admission 3/11 (27.27%) 32.35% 28.00% 66 Strong
Transit 0/4 0.00% 28.00% 98 Weak
Total 7 26.09% 31.00% 93 Weak
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 1/6 (16.67%) 25.00% 32.00% 86 Weak
Judicial cooperation 4/5 (80.00%) 84.21% 36.00% 27 Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 0/4 0.00% 14.00% 29 Weak
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 0/1 0.00% 11.00% 22 Weak
Total 5 42.00% 29.00% 51 Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 5/5 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 0/2 0.00% 25.00% 50 Weak
Flora and fauna 8/10 (80.00%) 78.26% 68.00% 44 Strong
Foodstuff 1/2 (50.00%) 37.50% 79.00% 136 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 17/26 (65.38%) 70.65% 46.00% 38 Strong
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 27.00% 1 Strong
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 35 76.56% 61.00% 31 Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 0/4 0.00% 8.00% 43 Weak
Cheques 0/3 0.00% 13.00% 36 Weak
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 2/3 (66.67%) 54.55% 20.00% 5 Strong
Total 2 14.63% 12.00% 52 Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 2/4 (50.00%) 66.67% 50.00% 34 Strong
Cultural Property 3/4 (75.00%) 81.25% 54.00% 21 Strong
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 1/2 (50.00%) 62.50% 80.00% 112 Weak
Total 9 78.85% 68.00% 45 Strong
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 8/8 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Total 15 100.00% 91.00% 1 Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 39.00% 1 Strong
International Trade Law 10/10 (100.00%) 100.00% 73.00% 1 Strong
Trade support institutions 5/6 (83.33%) 83.33% 51.00% 29 Strong
Total 16 94.12% 63.00% 22 Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 0/1 0.00% 47.00% 93 Weak
Copyright 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 65.00% 1 Strong
Industrial designs 1/2 (50.00%) 37.50% 31.00% 64 Strong
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 2/3 (66.67%) 61.54% 46.00% 73 Strong
Origin 0/3 0.00% 14.00% 51 Weak
Patents 4/5 (80.00%) 85.71% 57.00% 30 Strong
Trademarks 3/6 (50.00%) 50.00% 33.00% 54 Strong
Varieties of plants 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 37.00% 1 Strong
Total 14 58.95% 42.00% 55 Strong
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 24.00% 1 Strong
Timber 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 3 100.00% 53.00% 1 Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 3/7 (42.86%) 61.90% 59.00% 95 Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 5/9 (55.56%) 68.00% 74.00% 134 Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 11/13 (84.62%) 94.29% 66.00% 11 Strong
Maritime transport 5/12 (41.67%) 37.50% 27.00% 46 Strong
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 0/3 0.00% 22.00% 50 Weak
Road transport 0/4 0.00% 31.00% 86 Weak
Space 3/4 (75.00%) 83.33% 40.00% 16 Strong
Telecommunications 1/2 (50.00%) 83.33% 47.00% 26 Strong
Total 28 55.41% 50.00% 80 Strong
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 1/4 (25.00%) 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
Total 1 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 0/2 0.00% 18.00% 45 Weak
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 1 45.45% 47.00% 45 Weak
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Sale of Goods
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Temporary Admission
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment disputes
Products Marine Resources
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
Treaties law General
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Travel contracts
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Origin
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
Instruments ratifications

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