Belgium

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Belgium (), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres (11,787 sq mi) and has a population of about 11 million people. Straddling the cultural boundary between Germanic and Latin Europe, Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups: the Dutch-speaking, mostly Flemish community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, and the French-speaking, mostly Walloon population, which comprises 40 percent of all Belgians. Additionally, there is a small 1 percent group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons.
Historically, Belgium lay in the area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger area than the current Benelux group of states that also included parts of Northern France and Western Germany. The region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. From the 16th century until the Belgian Revolution in 1830, when Belgium seceded from the Netherlands, the area of Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, causing it to be dubbed the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars.
Today, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other. Its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the mostly French-speaking southern part of the Wallonia region. The Brussels-Capital Region is an officially bilingual (French and Dutch) enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased; there is significant separatism particularly among the Flemish; controversial language laws exist such as the municipalities with language facilities; and the formation of a coalition government took 18 months following the June 2010 federal election, a world record. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders, which boomed after the war.
Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, and the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is also a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO, and a part of the trilateral Benelux Union. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is also a part of the Schengen Area. Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 199 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 70.16%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 73.67%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 3 / 194
Developed country rank: 3 / 30
Developed country Avg. Ratifications: 159 / 282
Europe Union rank: 3 / 28
Europe Union Avg. Ratifications: 180 / 282
Western Europe rank: 2 / 10
Western Europe Avg. Ratifications: 169 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 1/7 (14.29%) 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 0/3 0.00% 18.00% 70 Weak
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 5.00% 8 Strong
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 0/4 0.00% 3.00% 31 Weak
Sale of Goods 5/5 (100.00%) 100.00% 25.00% 1 Strong
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 7 20.29% 9.00% 20 Strong
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 2/3 (66.67%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 2/6 (33.33%) 40.00% 26.00% 48 Strong
Exemption from Duties 6/9 (66.67%) 66.67% 30.00% 23 Strong
Temporary Admission 9/11 (81.82%) 91.18% 28.00% 9 Strong
Transit 3/4 (75.00%) 100.00% 28.00% 1 Strong
Total 22 77.17% 31.00% 12 Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 5/6 (83.33%) 75.00% 32.00% 2 Strong
Judicial cooperation 3/5 (60.00%) 57.89% 36.00% 55 Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 6 Weak
State court jurisdiction 2/4 (50.00%) 100.00% 14.00% 1 Strong
State court procedure 0/1 0.00% 6.00% 12 Weak
State immunities 0/1 0.00% 11.00% 22 Weak
Total 10 62.00% 29.00% 27 Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 4/5 (80.00%) 80.00% 86.00% 59 Weak
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 25.00% 1 Strong
Flora and fauna 9/10 (90.00%) 93.48% 68.00% 4 Strong
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 22/26 (84.62%) 82.61% 46.00% 21 Strong
Protected geographical areas 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 27.00% 1 Strong
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 43 86.98% 61.00% 14 Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 3/4 (75.00%) 50.00% 8.00% 1 Strong
Cheques 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 13.00% 1 Strong
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 0/3 0.00% 20.00% 75 Weak
Total 6 24.39% 12.00% 32 Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 3/4 (75.00%) 75.00% 50.00% 6 Strong
Cultural Property 3/4 (75.00%) 68.75% 54.00% 38 Strong
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 80.00% 1 Strong
Total 11 82.69% 68.00% 30 Strong
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 8/8 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Total 15 100.00% 91.00% 1 Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 39.00% 1 Strong
International Trade Law 10/10 (100.00%) 100.00% 73.00% 1 Strong
Trade support institutions 6/6 (100.00%) 100.00% 51.00% 1 Strong
Total 17 100.00% 63.00% 1 Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
Copyright 2/3 (66.67%) 90.91% 65.00% 48 Strong
Industrial designs 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 2/3 (66.67%) 76.92% 46.00% 61 Strong
Origin 0/3 0.00% 14.00% 51 Weak
Patents 4/5 (80.00%) 85.71% 57.00% 30 Strong
Trademarks 5/6 (83.33%) 95.45% 33.00% 10 Strong
Varieties of plants 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 37.00% 1 Strong
Total 17 81.05% 42.00% 27 Strong
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 0/1 0.00% 24.00% 48 Weak
Timber 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 76.92% 53.00% 23 Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 5/7 (71.43%) 90.48% 59.00% 4 Strong
Aircrafts and civil aviation 7/9 (77.78%) 92.00% 74.00% 11 Strong
Maritime shipping and load lines 11/13 (84.62%) 94.29% 66.00% 11 Strong
Maritime transport 7/12 (58.33%) 54.17% 27.00% 9 Strong
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 22.00% 1 Strong
Road transport 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
Space 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 40.00% 1 Strong
Telecommunications 1/2 (50.00%) 83.33% 47.00% 26 Strong
Total 42 86.49% 50.00% 2 Strong
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 2/4 (50.00%) 66.67% 30.00% 11 Strong
Total 2 66.67% 30.00% 11 Strong
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 18.00% 1 Strong
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 3 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Sale of Goods
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment disputes
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
Treaties law General
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Travel contracts
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Air
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Origin
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Marine Resources
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Instruments ratifications

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