Albania

Abstract

Wikipedia Country Information

Albania (, a(w)l-BAY-nee-ə; Albanian: Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Gheg Albanian: Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë, pronounced [ɾɛpuˈblika ɛ ʃcipəˈɾiːsə]), is a country in Southern and Southeastern Europe. It spans 28,748 square kilometres (11,100 square miles) and had a total population of 3 million people as of 2016. Albania is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic with the capital in Tirana, the country's most populous city and main economic and commercial centre, followed by Durrës. The country's other major cities include Vlorë, Sarandë, Shkodër, Berat, Korçë, Gjirokastër and Fier.
Albania occupies the southwestern portion of the Balkan Peninsula, bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south and southeast. The country features notable diversity with the landscape ranging from the Albanian Alps in the north, Korab Mountains in the east, Ceraunian Mountains in the south and Skanderbeg Mountains in the center. It has a coastline on the northern shore of the Mediterranean Sea; the Adriatic Sea to the west and the Ionian Sea to the southwest, forming the Albanian Riviera. Albania is less than 72 km (45 mi) from Italy across the Strait of Otranto which connects the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea.
During the classical times, Albania was inhabited by various ancient Illyrian, Thracian and Greek tribes, as well as several Greek colonies established inside the Illyrian coast. In the third century BC, the region was annexed by Rome and became part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Moesia Superior. The unified Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire. In the late twelfth century, Charles of Anjou conquered the Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. Falling in the mid-fifteenth century under Ottoman dominion, the modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and Balkan Wars. The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. The following year, a socialist People's Republic emerged under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. The country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established.
Albania is a democratic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy. The service sector dominates the country's economy, followed by the industrial and agriculture sector. Following the collapse of communism in 1990, Albania went through a process of transition from a centralized economy to a market-based economy. Albania has a high Human Development Index and is ranked thirty-seventh in the world for life expectancy. It provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. Albania is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, CoE, OSCE and OIC. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union. Furthermore, Albania is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, and Union for the Mediterranean.


Summary
Instruments ratified: 157 / 282
World Average Ratifications: 114 / 282
Ratification rate: 56.19%
World Average Rate: 41.25%
Weighted score: 61.18%
World Average Weighted Score: 41.25%
World rank: 35 / 194
Southern Europe rank: 7 / 14
Southern Europe Avg. Ratifications: 142 / 282
Transition economy rank: 12 / 28
Transition economy Avg. Ratifications: 141 / 282
Comparative Statistical Analysis
CONTRACTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Agency 0/2 0.00% 2.00% 8 Weak
Conflict of laws 0/7 0.00% 3.00% 27 Weak
E-commerce 0/3 0.00% 18.00% 70 Weak
Franchising 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Leasing/Factoring 0/2 0.00% 5.00% 13 Weak
Principles, trade usages and standards 0/2 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
Procurement 1/4 (25.00%) 21.43% 3.00% 1 Strong
Sale of Goods 1/5 (20.00%) 45.45% 25.00% 29 Strong
Travel contracts 0/1 0.00% 3.00% 7 Weak
Total 2 11.59% 9.00% 72 Strong
 
CUSTOMS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Customs Codification 1/3 (33.33%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Customs Cooperation 4/6 (66.67%) 80.00% 26.00% 1 Strong
Exemption from Duties 2/9 (22.22%) 29.63% 30.00% 81 Weak
Temporary Admission 2/11 (18.18%) 29.41% 28.00% 72 Weak
Transit 2/4 (50.00%) 72.73% 28.00% 17 Strong
Total 11 46.74% 31.00% 53 Strong
 
DISPUTE RESOLUTION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Arbitration 3/6 (50.00%) 45.00% 32.00% 72 Strong
Judicial cooperation 5/5 (100.00%) 100.00% 36.00% 1 Strong
Recognition of foreign judgments 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 2.00% 5 Strong
State court jurisdiction 0/4 0.00% 14.00% 29 Weak
State court procedure 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 6.00% 1 Strong
State immunities 0/1 0.00% 11.00% 22 Weak
Total 10 60.00% 29.00% 30 Strong
 
ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air 5/5 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Chemicals 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 78.00% 1 Strong
Energy 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 25.00% 1 Strong
Flora and fauna 7/10 (70.00%) 71.74% 68.00% 72 Weak
Foodstuff 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 79.00% 1 Strong
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
International watercourses 0/1 0.00% 18.00% 36 Weak
Maritime and Law of the Sea 18/26 (69.23%) 67.39% 46.00% 48 Strong
Protected geographical areas 0/1 0.00% 27.00% 54 Weak
Waste 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 37 75.52% 61.00% 37 Strong
 
FINANCE, PAYMENTS AND INSOLVENCY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Assignment of receivables 0/1 0.00% 1.00% 2 Weak
Bankruptcy and insolvency 0/1 0.00% 21.00% 41 Weak
Bills of exchange and promissory notes 0/4 0.00% 8.00% 43 Weak
Cheques 0/3 0.00% 13.00% 36 Weak
Credit transfers 0/1 0.00% 0.00% 1 Average
International guarantees 2/3 (66.67%) 54.55% 20.00% 5 Strong
Total 2 14.63% 12.00% 52 Strong
 
GOOD GOVERNANCE Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Corruption 2/4 (50.00%) 66.67% 50.00% 34 Strong
Cultural Property 3/4 (75.00%) 68.75% 54.00% 38 Strong
Drugs 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 95.00% 1 Weak
Insider Trading 0/1 0.00% 4.00% 9 Weak
Organized crime 2/2 (100.00%) 100.00% 80.00% 1 Strong
Total 10 80.77% 68.00% 35 Strong
 
HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR STANDARDS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Human Rights 7/7 (100.00%) 100.00% 96.00% 1 Weak
Labour Standards 8/8 (100.00%) 100.00% 86.00% 1 Strong
Total 15 100.00% 91.00% 1 Average
 
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Dispute Resolution 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 39.00% 1 Strong
International Trade Law 8/10 (80.00%) 80.00% 73.00% 56 Average
Trade support institutions 5/6 (83.33%) 83.33% 51.00% 29 Strong
Total 14 82.35% 63.00% 46 Strong
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Broadcasting 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 47.00% 1 Strong
Copyright 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 65.00% 1 Strong
Industrial designs 1/2 (50.00%) 62.50% 31.00% 37 Strong
Integrated circuits 0/1 0.00% 2.00% 4 Weak
Neighboring Rights 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 46.00% 1 Strong
Origin 0/3 0.00% 14.00% 51 Weak
Patents 5/5 (100.00%) 100.00% 57.00% 1 Strong
Trademarks 3/6 (50.00%) 50.00% 33.00% 54 Strong
Varieties of plants 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 37.00% 1 Strong
Total 17 74.74% 42.00% 39 Strong
 
INVESTMENTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Investment disputes 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 39.00% 2 Strong
Investment guaranty 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 93.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 66.67% 57.00% 2 Strong
 
PRODUCTS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Marine Resources 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 24.00% 1 Strong
Timber 0/1 0.00% 31.00% 61 Weak
General 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 92.00% 1 Weak
Total 2 61.54% 53.00% 61 Strong
 
TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Air transport 2/7 (28.57%) 38.10% 59.00% 143 Weak
Aircrafts and civil aviation 5/9 (55.56%) 76.00% 74.00% 80 Weak
Maritime shipping and load lines 10/13 (76.92%) 85.71% 66.00% 55 Strong
Maritime transport 8/12 (66.67%) 58.33% 27.00% 6 Strong
Multi modal transport 0/2 0.00% 4.00% 15 Weak
Rail transport 3/3 (100.00%) 100.00% 22.00% 1 Strong
Road transport 4/4 (100.00%) 100.00% 31.00% 1 Strong
Space 0/4 0.00% 40.00% 120 Weak
Telecommunications 0/2 0.00% 47.00% 114 Weak
Total 32 67.57% 50.00% 36 Strong
 
TREATIES LAW Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
General 1/4 (25.00%) 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
Total 1 41.67% 30.00% 41 Strong
 
WTO Inst. ratified Country score World avg. score Country rank in world Strength
Plurilateral Agreements 1/2 (50.00%) 50.00% 18.00% 26 Strong
WTO Agreements 1/1 (100.00%) 100.00% 81.00% 1 Strong
Total 2 72.73% 47.00% 26 Strong
 
Strengths and Weakness
Strong
Contracts Procurement
Contracts Sale of Goods
Customs Customs Codification
Customs Customs Cooperation
Customs Transit
Dispute resolution Arbitration
Dispute resolution Judicial cooperation
Dispute resolution Recognition of foreign judgments
Dispute resolution State court procedure
Environment and products Air
Environment and products Chemicals
Environment and products Energy
Environment and products Foodstuff
Environment and products Maritime and Law of the Sea
Finance, payments and insolvency International guarantees
Good Governance Corruption
Good Governance Cultural Property
Good Governance Organized crime
Human Rights and Labour Standards Labour Standards
Institutional Participation Dispute Resolution
Institutional Participation Trade support institutions
Intellectual property Broadcasting
Intellectual property Copyright
Intellectual property Industrial designs
Intellectual property Neighboring Rights
Intellectual property Patents
Intellectual property Trademarks
Intellectual property Varieties of plants
Investments Investment disputes
Products Marine Resources
Transport and telecommunications Maritime shipping and load lines
Transport and telecommunications Maritime transport
Transport and telecommunications Rail transport
Transport and telecommunications Road transport
Treaties law General
WTO Plurilateral Agreements
WTO WTO Agreements
 
Average
Contracts Franchising
Contracts Principles, trade usages and standards
Finance, payments and insolvency Credit transfers
Institutional Participation International Trade Law
 
Weak
Contracts Agency
Contracts Conflict of laws
Contracts E-commerce
Contracts Leasing/Factoring
Contracts Travel contracts
Customs Exemption from Duties
Customs Temporary Admission
Dispute resolution State court jurisdiction
Dispute resolution State immunities
Environment and products Flora and fauna
Environment and products General
Environment and products International watercourses
Environment and products Protected geographical areas
Environment and products Waste
Finance, payments and insolvency Assignment of receivables
Finance, payments and insolvency Bankruptcy and insolvency
Finance, payments and insolvency Bills of exchange and promissory notes
Finance, payments and insolvency Cheques
Good Governance Drugs
Good Governance Insider Trading
Human Rights and Labour Standards Human rights
Intellectual property Integrated circuits
Intellectual property Origin
Investments Investment guaranty
Products General
Products Timber
Transport and telecommunications Air transport
Transport and telecommunications Aircrafts and civil aviation
Transport and telecommunications Multi modal transport
Transport and telecommunications Space
Transport and telecommunications Telecommunications
Instruments ratifications

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Historical Data

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